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PRBIT SCRIPT Q1 dated 89/10/07 18:23:26 


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Date: 4-OCT-1989 17:04:06.39 

From: "SCHIFFER® ANLPHY (312)972-4066 FAX: 972-3903" < S CH I FFER@ANLPHY> 

To : rlg2@yktvrav. BITNET 

Subject: draft FUSION PRODUCTS chapter 
X-ANJE-To: GARWIN , SCHIFFER 

Dear Dick 



Enclosed the latest draft of the * 1 FUSION PRODUCTS 1 CHAPTER. I am 
to send a draft chapter to DOE for distribution this coming Monday the 9th. 
If I do not hear from you I will send the enclosed draft (with possible 
minor changes that I may get from others in the next few days). 



About the draft: The material you sent me has been trimmed in 
various ways -- please check that it still makes sense. 


1) I put the section on neutron detection into an appendix -- is that OK? 

Or should this be omitted? I have no strong feelings about it. 

2) Several references need to be added, some of them may already be on the 
list at the end. 

3) It is not clear to me that having the Fleischman & Pons gamma spectrum 
as a figure adds much, except that it rubs in the Tact that they do not 
understand gamma detection. It seems to me to be beating a dead horse. 

C>j 

4) Likewise about the Frascati figure that you indicated. 

5) I felt that you had somewhat overdone the Menlove business - as I think 
I mentioned in an earlier note, several things you said (e.g. H20 
control runs, separating counters) Menlove told me he had checked. 

I changed it but you should check and rewrite as you see fit. 

6) I thought that too much was made of the BARC report in your writeup, 
giving it a lot of weight and leaving the reader up in the air. I cut 
it back -- feel free to change it. 

7) I did leave the tables from the BARC report in as as appendix -- I think 

we should probably remove them (as well as the Bockris tables) if you agree. 

8) I put in a table of neutron rates -- normalized to the published Jones 
rate. Could you please check this? Huizenga is worried that Jones 
quoted a slightly lower rate to us at the visit to BYU. But this was 
only in a hand drawn figure of comparisons, and I would prefer to stick 
with the published number -- otherwise people will be very confused. 

9) Any other changes would be appreciated. 

PLEASE NOTE THAT I WILL NOT BE ABLE TO COME TO THE MEETING AT 
CHICAGO. SO IT WOULD BE GOOD IF WE COULD TALK BEFORE THEN. 


Regards, John Schiffer 


Draft -- October 4, 1989 
FUSION PRODUCTS 


I. INTRODUCTION 


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The nuclear fusion of deuterium has been studied intensively for 
over 40 years. The reaction between two low energy deuterium nuclei can 
proceed in three ways : 

(a) D + D --> 3He + n + 3.269 MeV 

(b) D + D --> 3H + p + 4.037 MeV 

(c) D + D --> 4He + gamma(23.847 MeV) 

The reactions (a) and (b) have been studied down to deuteron energies of a 
few keV and the cross sections found to be equal to within 10%. In the 
interaction of deuteron beams with heavy ice or metal deuteride targets, 
almost one 2.45 MeV neutron is produced (with an accompanying 3He) for 
every triton (with an accompanying proton) . This near-equality of neutron 
and proton branches of the D + D reaction, shown in figure 1, is a reflection 
of the basic symmetry of nuclear forces between proton and neutron, 
disturbed only slightly at the MeV energies of the emerging particles by 
the Coulomb interaction which is not symmetrical between proton and 
neutron. The cross sections for reaction (c) are very small -- on the order 
of 10**7 lower than the first two. 

All nuclear reactions at low energies between two deuterons are 
retarded by the Coulomb repulsion between the positively charged nuclei -- 
the penetration of the repulsive Coulomb barrier changes exponentially with 
bombarding energy: for instance the measured cross section for reaction (b) 
changes from 0.2 microbarns at 2.7 keV to 35 millibarns at 100 keV. But 
the _r_a_t_i_o_s for the three reactions appear to be constant below 100 
keV. 

Any fusion between deuterium nuclei __m_u_s_t lead to detectable 
fusion products. For reaction (a) neutrons are the most easily detected 
product, by direct counting. For (b) the protons or tritons can be 
detected by direct counting, and the accumulated tritium could also be 
identified by its radioactivity, albeit with lower sensitivity. Neutron 
counting perhaps the most useful technique here, since neutrons must be 
produced by the energetic tritons interacting with other deuterons in the 
material at the rate of 1 neutron for every 10000 to 50000 tritons, 
reaction (c) leads to readily detectable high energy gamma rays, and 4He 
may be identified by mass spectroscopic measurements, but the sensitivity 
is low -- though the 10**17 levels implied by the 1 watt of heat should be 
readily observable. 

In the following we wish to summarize the experimental evidence on 
these fusion products. First we discuss the plausibility of reactions at 
room temperature and the issue whether the constancy of the three reaction 
modes is a reasonable extrapolation to very low energies . Then the data on 
neutrons, charged particles, gamma rays and tritium are summarized. 

Finally, some comments are included on the more exotic explanations. 


II. THE REACTION PROCESS. 

Fusion reactions can occur only if, during a nuclear collision, the 
Coulomb barrier is surmounted or, at low energies, penmetrated and the 
nuclei approach each other within about 10**- 12 cm, some 10000 times 
smaller than the typical separations in ordinary matter. Fusion is 
generally enhanced by a we 11 -understood quantum mechanical phenomenon 
called tunneling that allows fusion to occur in collisions far less violent 
than might be required otherwise. 



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In the thermonuclear fusion that occurs in stars and in laboratory 
"hot fusion" experiments, very high temperatures provide the violent 
collisions required to produce fusion. However, in the so-called cold 
fusion experiments, it is claimed that the penetration of the barrier 
through quanum mechanical tunneling has somehow become so effective as to 
allow fusion to occur even at room temperatures. Further, some of the 
experimenters claim that the nuclear process is changed by some unspecified 
mechanism so as to alter dramatically the nature of the reaction products. 
These claims must be understood as separate and equally surprising. 


Some simple calculations serve to illustrate how remarkable the 
claim of fusion at room temperatures really is. The fusion rate for the 
two deuterium nuclei in a deuterium molecule (where they are even closer 
than they are when embedded in a metal) results in one fusion per year in 
solar mass of deuterium. Further, the fusion of protons and deuterons "'is 
10**9 times faster than the D + D reaction claimed to have been observed 
(although it is still extraordinarily slow). There is no known mechanism 
by which these rates _c_o_u_l_d be enhanced by the 40-50 orders of 
magnitude required to agree with the reported observations 





One commonly invoked mechanism for enhancing cold fusion rates is 
screening by "heavy" electrons. It is true that endowing the electron 
with a hypothetical mass some 5-10 times larger than it actually has would 
enhance fusion rates sufficiently to agree with most cold fusion claims 
Ko[. It is also true that there are "heavy fermion" materials whose 
thermodynamic properties at very low temperatures are characteristic of 
quasiparticles with masses many times those of a free electron. However, 
this phenomenon is understood as involving long-wavelength excitations in 
which strong correlations "dress" electrons near the fermi surface. As 
such, heavy fermions extend over many lattice sites. Because the 
tunnelling in nuclear fusion occurs at distances smaller than one lattice 
site, only the short -wave length "barej electron excitations are relevant 
for screening, and cannot enhance the fusion rate significantly. 


X 


Ila. The D + D Branching Ratios. 

The relative rates of reactions (a), (b) , and (c) are called the 
branching ratios and are a crucial issue in the discussion of some cold 
fusion claims. These reactions have been studied in laboratory experiments 
using accelerators for deuteron energies above a few keV Kr ; the 
smallness of both cross sections prevents reliable measurements at lower 
energies . The ratio between the two rates exhibits a weak energy 
dependence and is near 1.0 at the lowest energies. Data from muon- 
catalyzed D + D fusion muon;, which probes the energy range around 3 keV 
is still consistent with equal rates. 


A branching ratio of more than one million would be required to 
explain experiments that claim to observe high fusion rates (either through 
heat or tritium production) without a corresponding high neutron flux. As 
"cold fusion" is thought to occur at energies on the order of eV, this is 
not directly ruled out by the data discussed above. However, there is no 
known mechanism for inducing such a rapid energy-dependence in the 
branching ratio. The Oppenheimer-Phillips process involving the Coulomb 
break-up of the deuteron has been invoked in this regard 

!??!. 

However , 

this mechanism requires the deuteron size (some 5 fm) to be large relative 
to the spatial scale (the Bohr radius) of the internuclear Coulomb wave- 
function. As this latter is some 25 fm for D + D, the Oppenheimer-Phillips 


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process cannot give rise to the large effects required. 


lib. The Gamma Branch. 

Some researchers have hypothesized that the D + D -> 4He + gamma 
(23.847 MeV) reaction, which is ordinarily some 10**7 times weaker Ba| 
than reactions (a) and (b) in which two fragments are produced, somehow 
dominates in cold fusion situations. To be consistent with the lack of 
neutrons, a very large enhancement of the gamma branch by a factor some- 
where in excess of 10**13 would be required. We know of no way whereby the 
atomic or chemical environment can effect such an enhancement, as this 
ratio is set by phenomena on a length scale some 10**4 times smaller than 
the atomic scale. 

Even if there were such an enhancement, the absence of observed 
high-energy electromagnetic radiation (photons, positrons, or fast 
electrons) rules out such a mechanism. While direct coupling to the 
lattice through unspecified mechanisms has been invoked to supress such 
radiation, any such coupling must occur through the electromagnetic field 
and would result in some observable high-energy radiation. 

lie. It has been suggested an alternative fusion process, could be the 
reaction 

p + D --> 3He + gamma (5.49 MeV) 

for which the penetration factors are still overwhelmingly small at room 
temperature, but somewhat less so than for the D + D process. This 
reaction must produce a readily observable gamma ray. If it is to account 
for 1 watt of heat, then it should also produce 3He in observable 
concentrations . 


lid. Estimate of Secondary Yields from Fusion Products. 

i) Neutrons from tritiums / The tritons produced in reaction (b) are 

produced with an energy of 1.01 MeV. This energy must be lost in the 
immediately surrounding material, which in the case of an electrolyitxq oeTf 
is either the Pd electrode saturated with deuterium, c(r heavy w£ter>^The 
tritons will therefore bombard the deuterium in the surrtrun4“ing material. 
The t+d reaction is a rich source of neutrons, with a cross section that 
reaches 5 barns at 0.12 MeV, then falls to about 0.7 barns at 0.5 MeV, and 
reaches slightly below 0.3 barns at 1 MeV. For the 1.01 MeV tritons from 
the D + D reaction one may assume an average cross section of about 1.2 
barns. For tritons that are stopped in PdD this translates into a neutron 
yield between 0.15 and 0.2xl0**-4 neutrons per triton; for tritons 
stopping in heavy water there are about 0.9xl0**-4 per triton. 

ii) Coulomb excitation of Pd by protons . The even Pd isotopes 

(104,106, 108,110) with abundances of 11,27,26,12 % have first-excited In- 
states at 555,512,434,374 keV and B(E2) values between 0.5 and 0.8 barns. 
The cross sections for Coulomb excitation are in the vicinity of 20 to 50 
mb and thus the yields expected are 2 to 5 10**-6 per proton. In palladium 
the half thickness for absorption of these gamma rays is about 4 mm, in 
water it is several cm. 

In terms of power, there must be about 10**8/ sec secondary 
neutrons per watt of fusion, even if direct neutron production is 
completely suppressed and all the reaction goes into tritium production. 




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Under these conditions there must also be slighly under 10**7 secondary 
photons per second in the 500 keV range. 

III. NEUTRONS. 

Ilia. Detection. 

As discussed above neutrons are a major product of D + D fusion. 
Neutrons are very convenient particles to detect, since they interact only 
with the nuclei of atoms and so can emerge from reaction vessels of 
substantial size unscathed and without having lost any energy. Similarly, 
large counters can be used without the problem of thin entrance windows, 
since neutrons enter into the mass of the counter without difficulty. 
Neutron detection is summarized in Appendix A. 


111b. Selection of Data. 


In what follows, we have tried to use published material, where 
available, or material prepared for publication and presented at formal 
meetings or as preprints distributed without restriction as to citation. 

It is important to include not only __P_o_s__i_t_i__v__e results, that claim 
the detection of neutrons, but also the _n_e_g_a_t_i_v^e ones, that have 
attempted to replicate the experimental procedure of the former and failed 
to detect neutrons at a level of sensitivity substantially better than the 
positive results. 


111c. Initial claims. 



The University of Utah (UU) group in its i_n_i_t_i_a_l publication 
[Fief claimed the detection of neutrons from D + D by virtue of the gamma ray 
emitted by the capture of the moderated neutron in the water bath 
surrounding the electrolytic cells. A very narrow peak in the pulse-height 
spectrum from the Nal scintillator was shown in the paper, and is 
reproduced in figure 2 
**RLG reproduce** ?? DO WE WANT THIS??? 


at the expected energy^ of 2.2 MeV. The text, however, claimed that the 
expected energy was^/pMeV n c/ f ~ 

**RLG check** ^ 

and so narrow a window of the overall scintillation spectrum was shown that 
the reader could make no judgment as to the reality of the peak. 



These very questions were taken up by a group at MIT, [Pe| who 
showed that the photo peak at 2.2 MeV obtained at MIT from Cf spontaneous 
fission neutrons moderated in water and radiative ly captured on protons is 
accompanied by other peaks from natural background that enable one to 
calibrate the energy, and successive interchange between UU and MIT groups 
in the scientific literature hav^demonst rated with high probability that 
the claimed detection of neutrons by the proton capture gamma ray at UU has 
been an artefact of the experimental apparatus . 

The original publication from Brigham Young University (BYU) [Jo| 
presented the detection of neutrons as the sole experimental evidence for 
the existence of cold nuclear fusion. The neutrons were detected in a 
two-stage neutron counter -- first by the proton recoil in organic 
scintillator, followed within a few tens of microseconds by a signal from 
the capture of the moderated neutron on boron viewed by the same 
photomultipliers. This double detection of a single neutron serves 
substantially to reduce the ambient background due to gamma rays, although 




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there remains background in the experiment due to gamma rays and to real 
neutrons from cosmic rays* and other sources. The group at BYU has chosen 
to attempt to vary the experimental conditions in order to obtain a greater 
rate of D + D fusion, and so has not presented much more data than the 
original paper on the detection of neutrons with that counter. In fact, 

BYU has been working in collaboration with other groups, notably at M n 

LANL . ^ 

l??l, £/^i/ y V\ J 

and also with^g=g3^up--^ / ^ ^ / ^ I 


M- 


The original claim 

of neutron detection five standard deviations above the background is 
somewhat reduced in statistical strength if one considers the degrees of 
freedom that are fixed by the presentation of a peak in one of a number of 
experiments and at a particular energy, and also the possible fluctuation 
in the cosmic-ray neutron background. Ordinarily, however, such a 
significant result can be brought up from the background by using different 
counting or detection equipment or by reducing background through improved 
shielding or by moving to underground site. 


*( footnote) Additional care is needed as the rate of cosmic ray neutrons 
can fluctuate by 20% or more with variations in barometric pressure as well 
as with solar activity. 


Typical of the latter is work presented by the group at Sandia 
National Laboratory, Sal 


V RLG cite* 




in which a site was found with substantially less background and results 
presented as follows for the neutrons produced in electrolytic fusion. [Jo| 
**RLG cite** ???Should we also cite Frejus results presented at Santa 
Fe??? jCv 


Many claims have been made for the production and detection of 
neutrons produced in electrochemical cells, but these claims have almost 
all been withdrawn or moderated by the discovery of difficulties with the 
counter -- particularly with the BF3 counters used. In some cases, the 
counters are sensitive to humidity; in others to microphonic noise 
(vibration); or to other afflictions. A summary of some of the limits on 
neutron fluxes reported, compared to the flux reported by the BYU group, is 
shown in Table I. 


Illd. Dry Fusion. 

Results presented in April 1989 by a group at Frascati DeN 
opened an entirely new opportunity for the observation of D 4* D cold 
nuclear fusion. In this work, deuterium gas at 60 atmospheres pressure (60 
bar) was allowed to contact titanium lathe turnings in a stainless steel 
reaction vessel. That allowed the temperature of the sample to be varied 
either by heating or by cooling. No neutrons were observed from the 
hydriding reaction at room temperature or at elevated temperature, when 
viewed by a nearby BF3 counter. However, after cycling to nitrogen 
temperature, _b_u_r_s_jt_s of counts were obtained from the counter -- 
typically on the order of 20 counts per burst emerging over a period of 60 
microseconds. One set of data was presented on counts obtained by cycling 
to nitrogen temperature, showing neutrons essentially only in these bursts. 

A totally different type of neutron emission was also claimed by 



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jc O' 


the Frascati group [DeN| following warmjjng^Trom nitrogen temperature over 
one weekend. A bell-shaped curve -Tiding to a peak of 300 neutrons per ten- 
minute counting interval/ is^epxadnoed— itr^fi^ufe”^ 


,S^ ji fa 
f-J 


**RL G do** ? ? ? DO WE WANT THIS??? 

This, of course, is an important experimental result, and provoked great t 
effort toward verification both at Frascati and elsewhere. Pfe— : £s 

private communication from M. Martone at Frascati x that 
there has been no confirmation of either the burst results or of the 
continuous neutron emission from the D-Ti system or from any other dry 
fusion activity at Frascati. In addition, electrochemical cells operated 
without producing observable numbers of neutrons, and their operation was 
terminated during the month of July. 


A group at LANL Me has conducted dry fusion work with Ti and Pd, 
and has presented results both at the Santa Fe meeting and in a preprint. 
This group at LANL uses high-efficiency systems that moderate any fast 
neutrons emitted from experimental cells, detecting the moderated thermal 
neutrons in 3He gas counters . 

**RLG check** 

Bursts of neutron counts are sometimes observed 3000-5000 seconds after the 
sample is removed from liquid nitrogen, at a time when the sample 
temperature is typically -30 C. These bursts, consisting of about 100 
neutrons at most, are seen in about 30% of the samples tested. An attempt 
to reproduce this effect at Sandia National Laboratory yielded entirely 
negative results. 



?? 

«... * • ti 

At the Santa Fe workshop, Moshe Gai of Yale presented results 
obtained in collaboration with Brookhaven National Laboratory, in which 
neutrons were detected from electrolytic cells. 

Finally, a conference report from the Bhabha Atomic Research Center 
(BARC), . Iy provides text and tabulated results from several groups at 
BARC . Fig. 1 of the BARC report shows counts from neutron detectors 
observing a large electrolytic cells, with an estimated 2x10** 7 /neutrons in 
the 5 minutes following an overpower trip of the electrolyzer.-/ Fig. 2 of 
the BARC report shows dry fusion 3He counter output during gradual rise of 
temperature of 20 g of Ti while deuterium gas was being pumped off. It is 
also commented that samples could be loaded with deuterium gas at 1 bar and 
900 C, and that "one such disc shaped button loaded on Friday 16th June 
began emitting neutrons on its own, almost 50 hours after loading. It 
produced (about) 10**6 neutrons over a 85 -minute active phase. The 
background neutron counter did not show any increase in counts over this 

, . ti 

time . 



I lie. Secondary Neutron Production. 

ri, V €^ 

There are^ problems of consistency between the number of tritium 
atoms found in some of the experiments discussed above and the number of 
neutrons detected. The BARC abstract reads, "The total quantity of tritium 
generated corresponds to about 10**16 atoms suggesting a neutron to tritium 
branching ratio less than 10**-8 in cold fusion." 

But, as discussed above there _m__u_s_t be at least one neutron pe 
100,000 tritons if the observed tritium were is originating from fusi 


■ff fe/a 7 


_1_0_0_0 times more than was observed! /p 

v .... f 



IV. CHARGED PARTICLES AND GAMMAS. 


p hi 


t 


v/r*/ ( 



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A few experiments Po,Pr ,Re,Su[to measure the 3 MeV protons and/or 
the 1 MeV tritons produced in the reaction, D + D --> 3H + p, have been 
reported; they are summarized in Table II below. A variety of different 
methods has been used, but the lowest limit on charged-particle production 
appears to be that set by Price using plastic track detectors. Their setup 
was designed so that the light water control cell matched the heavy water 
cell as closely as possible. Electrolysis was performed for 13 days, and 
the cathode stochiometry was determined to be Pd(H,D)0.8. Both cells 
showed track production rates which agreed and were consistent with the 
alpha-particle emission rate for native Pd foils due to trace (ppm) 
impurities of the natural 238U and 232Th decay chains; however, no tracks 
due to protons with energies between 0.2 and 3 MeV or tritons with energies 
between 0.2 and 1 MeV were found. From these data Price ^Pr[ set limits on 
the fusion rate of less than 0.002 per cm3 per second. This value results 
in an upper limit of 8.3xl0**-26 fusions per dd pair per second. This is 
about an order of magnitude lower than the limits obtained using Si surface 
barrier (SSB) techniques. 

A limit on the fusion rate of 0.028 per cm3 per second or 1.2 x 
10** -24 fusions per dd pair per second was obtained by Ziegler Zi using a 
SSB technique. Porter Po used a SSB detector to view the back of a 76 
micron thick Pd foil cathode ina heavy water electrolysis cell. They 
obtained a limit of less than 6xl0**-25 protons per dd pair per sec at the 
2 sigma level; chemical analysis of their electrolytes showed no evidence 
for anomalous increases in tritium concentrations. Sundqvist et al. Su 
also used a SSB technique to detect protons. The detector was placed close 
to Pd foil cathodes which were thin enough to allow all the protons 
produced to escape from the foil. All of their runs gave a result of 0 
within the statistical errors, resulting in a fusion rate of -2.1 (+/-2.2) 
xl0**-24, if a bulk process is assumed. 

Recently, Rehm Re has reported using a proportional counter to 
search for charged particles from electrolytic cells with Pd and Pt 
electrodes in 0 . 1 M LiOD in D20. They obtained an upper limit of 4 x 
10**-23 fusions per dd pair per second, not as low as the limits using the 
other methods. 

In summary, a variety of experimental techniques has been used in 
searches for charged particles; all of them set very low limits on fusion 
occuring via the D + D --> 3H + p. Most of these results set limits on 
fusion via this channel that are considerably less than Jones* Jo value 
of 1.00 (+/-0.82) x 10**-23 fusions per dd pair per second for the D + D 
--> 3He + n channel obtained from neutron measurements. (The uncertainty 
was calculated by Su ) . 


The upper limit of Price Pr of 8xl0**-26 fusions per dd pair per 
second is much below the average low rate inferred from the neutron 
measurements of Jones or even those of Menlove ; Me; . The extremely low 
limits which the searches for charged particles (either protons or tritons) 
place on their production is clearly inconsistent with the reported 
production of tritium via the cold fusion reaction. 


IVa. GAMMA-RAY SEARCHES 

As was mentioned above, a-s«w9drl branch of the D + D reaction 
proceeds through capture, in which a 23 MeV gamma-ray is emitted. 
Similarly, the p + D reaction is associated with a 5.49 MeV gamma ray. 


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Several searches have been published in which no gamma rays that would be 
associated with the D + D or p + D capture reactions were seen. They 
include a report by Henderson [He[ who cites limits around 10** -23/ sec ^3 ~ 
MeV gamma rays emitted per deuteron in various cells. Porter [Po| reports 
no 5.5 MeV gamma rays — though no absolute limit is quoted. They also 
comment on the absence of Pd K X-ray production. Greenwood tGr^ also 
report limits of 10**- 23 for gamma rays above 1.9 MeV. Other negative 
results are quoted in the Santa Fe abstracts without quantitative detail. 


A 


V. TRITIUM. 





Jm 




above, one branch of the D + D reaction produces 
As was also discussed, searches involving the direct 


As discus 

tritons and protons 

detection of charged particles have yielded rather stringent negative 
results ' A number of searches have also been made for the tritium 
accumulated during the electrolysis of D20 with palladium cathodes, 
determining tritium content by detecting the radioactive decay of tritium. 
In such experiments it is important to determine the initial tritium 
content of the heavy water and to take cognizance of the fact that the 
electrolysis of the heavy water will enrich the naturally occurring tritium 
in the heavy water. 


fi iyLc . 4 ^ 7 


o 

its b« 


The detection of tritium by measurement of its b eta decay is 
inherently a less sensitive probe of the D + D reaction than the direct 
measurement of neutron production or charged particle production. About 
10**7 tritium atoms give 1 decay by beta emission per minute. The tritium 
content of normal water is about 10**- 18 relative to hydrogen but, as 
discussed in Appendix C the normal manufacturing of heavy water also 
enriches in tritium and thus heavy water currently being sold gives between 
120 and 180 disintegrations per minute (dpm) from tritium decay. 


Va. Null Experiments. 






Most of the work reported to date on the search for excess tritium 
produced in electrolytic cells can be accounted for by the electrolytic 
enrichment process. This includes the original report by Fleischmann and 
Pons Fie , and experiments at ANL, Gre,Red BNL, Da,McB,Wi2 Cal Tech, Le2 
CRNL, Sc INEL, Lo LLNL,. Al’. NRL, Er ORNL, Fu,Sc Sandia, Na SRL, Ra[ 

Texas A & M, Ma and Utah. Wad 


v 


A I-"' 


J 




Vb. Tritium Bursts 


A small number of experimenters report occasional irreproducible 
amounts of excess tritium in their D20 samples taken from their electro- 
lytic cells after days of operation. This includes observations by 
Storms St at Los Alamos, and Fuller Fu and Scott Sc at ORNL. The ORNL 
experiments show single cases of an excess of tritium which is of short 
duration, after which a cell returns to background level. Storms reports 
excess tritium, 100 times background, in two cells out of fifty. 


Vc. Closed Cells - Correlation with Excess Heat. 


Four different groups McB ,McC , Sc,Ma have now looked for tritium 
production in closed electrolytic cells. These experiments detect all the 
tritium from the electrolytic process with the exception of that which may 
be contained in the Pd cathode. In general, the deuterium inventory in the 
cathode is negligible compared with the D20. Only that tritium formed 
within the cathode and which remains there because of slow diffusion is 
unaccounted for. There is no electrolytic enrichment of the tritium in the 


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make up D20. In these experiments the total amount of excess tritium fosmi 
in the total D20 is less than 10**4 T atoms/sec. If this tritium is 
produced by the D + D reaction, then the maximum amount of excess power 
(cold fusion power) is 10** -5 milliwatts. In one experiment /Wad in an 
open cell there was a heat burst of 35 watts for 90 minutes (187,000 
joules). The tritium was measured after the burst and no excess above the 
electrolytic enrichment was found. Clearly the heat burst does not come 
from the D + D reaction. 


Vd. High Levels of Tritium. 


Two groups Pa,Iny_ find tritium at levels of 10**12 to 10**14 T 
atoms/ml D20 after periods of electrolysis of the order of hours. This 
amount of tritium cannot be produced by electrochemical enrichment with the 
D20 volume reductions reported. The results of the Bockris Pa^ group at 
Texas A & M for cells in which excess tritium was found are given in Table 
1 of their paper, reproduced in Appendix B. Excess tritium is not found in 
all of their cells. A listing of cells in which no excess tritium was 
found is given in their Table 4 (also in Appendix B). The Bockris cells 
are 0.1 M in LiOD and have nickel anodes. They precipitate nickel oxide 


during the electrolysis; some nickel is also electroplated out on the 
palladium cathode. In one experiment, A8, the specific activity of the D2 
gas produced by the electrolysis was measured. It is 100 times that of the 
electrolyte. 

D2(gas) containing tracer amounts of tritium and in equilibrium 
with D20( liquid) has a specific activity that is lower by 0.6 than the D20 
(liquid). If the tritium is formed during electrolysis, this result 
suggests that it is formed in the chemical species DT and that the tritium 
in the liquid D20 is the result of hot atom processes or slow isotopic 
exchange of the DT(gas) with D20(liquid) Bi2 . 


20 ( liquii 
1 have lo 


Wolf Wo" at Texas A & M have looked for neutron production 
in Bockris type cells. An upper limit to their neutron production rate is 
1 neutron/ second, which is 10**- 10 times that of the tritium production 
rates reported with similar cells by Packham et al.:Pa This is a large 
discrepancy from the equal production rates for neutrons and tritons 
required by the branching ratio in the fusion reaction, discussed in 
section II, and is inconsistent, by a factor of 10,000 to 100,000, even 
with the secondary neutrons that _m_u_s_t accompany the tritons produced 
from nuclear fusion. One is strongly inclined to conclude that the excess 
tritium found in the electrochemical cells cannnot be the result of nuclear 
fusion in the cell. 


The most extensive and systematic search for tritium in the 
electrolysis of D20 with Pd cathodes has been carried out by Martin Ma at 
Texas A & M. He has used both open and closed cells. His cathodes come 
from either Johnson & Mathey, a major supplier, or Hoover and Strong, who 
supplied the cathodes to the Bockris 'Pa group. He has operated cells 
with Pt, Ni wire and Ni gauze (obtained from Bockris) anodes. In none of 
his cells does he find any excess tritium beyond that expected from 
electrolytic enrichment. Nor does he find any neutrons. Two of his cells 
produced excess heat but no tritium. In short, he has been unable to 
reproduce the results of the Bockris group. 


The BARC llyl group have found amounts of tritium comparable to 
the Bockris group in the D20 electrolyte from cells in which electrolysis 
was carried out for a few days with currents varying between 1 to 100 
amperes. As was already mentioned above, here there is again a factor of 
1000 internal inconsistency between their measured neutron yields and the 


cr&r* 


PRBIT SCRIPT Q1 dated 89/10/07 18:23:26 


Page 11 


neutrons that have to be there if this tritium was indeed produced by 
fusion -- even if one assumes the very unlikely drastic modification of the 
branching ratio in the D + D reaction. 

The experiments carried out to date include the large number of 
null experiments. There are a few experiments in which excess tritium is 
found, and which other groups have not been able to reproduce. These 
measurements also contain a serious internal inconsistency, in that the 
ratio of measured neutrons to tritium is smaller by orders of magnitude 
than what is consistent with a fusion process being their source. 

Additional investigations are desirable to clarify the origin of the excess 
tritium which is occasionally observed. 


VI . EXOTIC EXPLANATIONS . 


The data on fusion products, even where positive results are 
reported, give rates far below those that would be expected from the levels 
of heat reported in some electrolysis experiments. There have been some 
attempts to propose mechanisms where the reaction heat froift the D + D --> 
4He process would go entirely into lattice heat, rather than a photon 
Wal,Ha r . Analogies have been made with the internal conversion process, 
and with the Mossbauer effect. Neither of these analogies is applicable to 
4He . 


analogi 


Internal conversion allows an atomic electron of an excited nucleus 
to carry off the reaction instead of a photon, jhis process is understood 
quantitatively -- it is dominant in heavy atoms with tightly bound inner 
electrons and for low energy (less than 1 MeV) photons. In helium the 
atomic electrons are loosely bound and the photon is 23.8 MeV -- there can 
not be any appreciable coupling between the photon and the atomic 
electrons, and internal conversion or any related process cannot take place 
at anywhere near the rate that would be required. 


In the Mossbauer effect the _m_o_m_e_n_t_u_m of a very low energy 
(below 100 keV) photon is taken up by the entire lattice in a coherent 
mode, but _n_o_t its energy. The process cannnot be relevant to the 
present process. 


Considering experimental evidence more generally, there have been 
careful studies of a very large number of reactions analogous to the D + D 
fusion process, in which gamma rays of comparable energy emitted from 
low-energy nuclear reactions (thermal-neutron capture gamma rays) and the 
cross sections for cpature have been studied very carefully and 
quantitatively. Their knowledge is essential to the operation of fission 
reactors. If there were any anomalous processes in which the energy of a 
capture gamma ray were converted into lattice heat, this would have almost 
certainly been noticed as a discrepancy in cross sections with major 
implications on the operation of reactors. After four decades of extensive 
study of the processes relevant to the operation of fission reactors the 
possibility is extemely remote that an entirely new process, that could 
dominate these nuclear reactions, would have remained hidden. 


VII. SEARCH FOR PRODUCTS OF COLD-FUSION IN THE EARTH 

Products of low-level cold fusion have been inferred to be produced 
by natural geologic processes Jo, JoL . The 3He:4He ratio is anomalously 
high in volatiles from deep-source volcanoes such as Hawaii, Iceland, and 
Yellowstone :Cr,Ku,Mam ; anomalous 3H is also suggested by fragmentary data 
0m,Jo2 , and production of other radiogenic products such as 36C1 have 


PRBIT SCRIPT Q1 dated 89/10/07 18:23:26 


Page 12 


been predicted [Pk|. Although the high 3He values have previously been 
considered relict from early earth processes, presence of anomalous 3H or 
36C1 (beyond that due to bomb tests) would be definitive evidence of 
natural cold fusion at depth within the earth. Implications would be major 
for geophysical problems such as heat-flow modelling, element-distribution 
with depth, and composition of the Earth’s core. 

Although some knowledgeable isotope geochemists see no evidence for 
naturally occurring cold fusion Crl , several government and university 
labs are searching for evidence of such fusion processes as recorded by 
volcanic volatiles [ Jo2,Ky,Go,Loc,Qu . Even if laboratory experiments for 
cold fusion are discredited, such geologic studies could add much to 
understanding of the behavior of volcanic volatiles. No rigorous results 
are yet available, but experiments proposed or underway at Brigham Young, 
Los Alamos, Lawrence Livermore, New Mexico Tech, and the U.S. Geological 
Survey (Denver) should yield data within 6 months to 1 year. 


VIII. SUMMARY. 

A number of careful experiments have been carried out to search for 
the expected products of cold fusion. _N_o_n_e have seen these products at 
anywhere near the level that would be expected from the heat production 
reported in electrolysis, by many orders of magnitude. Some experiments 
report neutrons or tritium at a much lower level -- however, the rates of 
these two fusion products (measured in the same experiments) are 
inconsistent with each other, again by large factors. 



The neutron bursts reported in some experiments also suffer from 
not being reproducible by other experimenters. While it is conceivable 
that some mechanism might produce very small bursts of hot fusion (e.g. 
high voltage internal sparks associated with fracture of the material at 
certain temperatures) at the present time the experimental evidence is not 
redily reproducible, and if real, the phenomenon does not appear to be 
related to ’cold fusion’ as postulated in the heat production experiments. 


/>V 

If there _w_e_r_e such a process as room temperature fusion, it 
would require not only 

(a) the circumvention of fundamental quantum mechanical principles, 
that have been carefully tested against numerous measurements of 
barrier penetration (such as the systematics of spontaneous fission 
and alpha radioactivity lifetimes and those of nuclear cross 
sections), but also 

(b) drastic modifications of branching ratios in the D + D reaction, 
_a_n_d 

(c) the invention of an entirely new nuclear reaction process. 


’Alice laughed. ’’There’s no use trying,” she 
said: "one can’t believe impossible things.” 


”l daresay you haven’t had much practice,” 
said the Queen. ’’When I was your age, I always did it 
for half-an-hour a day. Why, sometimes I’ve believed 
as many as six impossible things before breakfast.”* 


from ’Through the Looking Glass’ 


PRBIT SCRIPT Q1 dated 89/10/07 18:23:26 


Page 13 


TABLE I. SOME COLD FUSION NEUTRON RATES 


Authors 


Reference 


Neutrons per 
DD pair per sec 

i % 


' vtj orma l ize3> ^ 
Neutron Yield 


Yield corresponding 
to 1 watt of heat 


production 

F 1 ej 

3x10**- 11 


3x10** 

Yield corres 

ponding 




to neutron yield of 



VV 

Jones et al 

: jo„ 

10** -23 


Gai et al 

Gar 

< 2xl0**-25 


< 0.02 

Kashy et al 

Ka. 

< 10** -25 


< 0.01 

Lewis et al 

Le 

< 1 . 5xl0**-24 


< .15 

Williams et 

al Wi| 

♦ 

< 5x10**-^ 

< 0.2 

Alber et al 

Alb 


<0.05 

Broer et al 

BrO 

< 2.2xl0**-24 


< 0.2 

Schriber et 
De Clais et 

al Schr 
al DeCl; 

JSy 

AV 


<0.02 
< 0.01 


e> 


< 0.001 


E II 


II. s 




TABLE II. SOME COLD FUSION FAST CHARGED PARTICLE RATES 


Authors Reference Protons per DD Yield Normalized to 

pair per sec Jones et al. neutrons 


Yield corresponding 
to 1 watt of heat 


production ,Fle 


3x10**- 12 

3x10**12 

Jones et al. 

Jo 

lxl0**-23 

1.0 

Porter et al. 

|Por 

< 6. 7x10** -25 

<0.07 

Price et al. 

.Prr 

< 8 . 3xl0**-26 

< 0.008 

Ziegler et al. 

i’Zifj 

< 1 . 2xl0**-24 

< 0.12 [al 

Rehm et al. 

‘Reh[: 

< 4xl0**-23 

< 4 

Sundquist et al . 

su 

< 2xl0**-24 

< 0.2 



PRBIT SCRIPT Q1 dated 89/10/07 18:23:26 


Page 14 


Schrieder et al. Schrjj 


< 3 . lx!0**-24 


< 0.31 ^a| 


a 6. Rehm et al comment that the choice of the low-energy cutoff (e.g. 

1 MeV in Ref. [Zi; ) restricts the emission angle of the protons with respect to 
the foil to a small cone representing only a few of the total solid angle. 

This effect seems to hve been neglected in the efficiency calculations for 
the limits quoted by these authors. 


REFERENCES 


Alb Alber et al Z. Phys . A 333 319 (1989). 

Aid F. T. Aldridge, R. J. Contolini, M. Y. Ishikawa and D. R. Slaughter, 

LLNL, communicated J. F. Holtzrichter to ERAB 8 September 1989. 

Ba C. A. Barnes et al. Phys. Letts. B197 315 (1987). 

Bi J. Bigeleisen "Tritium Enrichment in the Electrolysis of D20" Workshop 
on Cold Fusion Phenomena, Santa Fe, NM, 22-25 May, 1989. 

Bi2 J. Bigeleisen, letter of 26 August 1989 to J. 0 T M. Bockris. 

Br[i Broer et al Phys. Rev. C preprint. 

Cr' H. Craig et al., Science, 214 (1981). 

Crl H. Craig, priv. comm, to P. Lipman, 28 Sept. (1989). 

Da A. J. Davenport and H. S. Isaacs, BNL, communicated by P. Bond to 

ERAB 1 Septe mK ^ iQ«Q 
DeCl De Clais et 


Er' J. Eridon, N -o ERAB. 

Fie M. Fleischmann and S. Pons J. Electroanalytic Chem. 261 201 (1989). 

Fu E. L. Fuller, ORNL Memo of 29 August 1989 to B . R. Appleton. 

Gai M. Gai et al. Nature 340 29 (1989). 

Gar R. L. Garwin, private communication. 

Go F.E. Goff, priv. comm, to P. Lipman, 24 August (1989). 

Gr L. R. Greenwood and C. A. Melendres, ANL, communicated to ERAB 23 

August 1989. 

Ha P. L. Hagelstein "On the Possibility of Coupling Nuclear Fusion Energy 
to Phonons." and "A Simple Model for Coherent Fusion in the Presence 
of a Lattice." preprints, August 1989. 

He R. A. Henderson, et al. (Poster presented at Sante Fe Cold Fusion 
Meeting), Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Preprint LBL-2740, 
submitted to J. Fusion Energy. 

Iy P. K. Iyengar, "Cold Fusion Results in the Bhabha Atomic Research 
Center (BARC) Experiments". Paper presented at the Fifth 
International Conference of Emerging Nuclear Energy Systems (ICENES 
V). Karlsruhe, 3-6 July 1989. 

: Je Letter from R. J. Jensen, ADR: 89-364, to Jacob Bigeleisen 18 August 

1989. 

Jo Jones et al . (Nature 338, 737,1989). 

Jol Jones et al., draft preprint (1989). 

Jo2 Jones, priv. comm, to P. Lipman, 8 Sept. (1989). 

Ka Kashy et al Phys. Rev. C 40 R1 (1989). 

Kr A. Krauss et al. Nucl. Phys. A465 150 (1987), and references therein. 

Ku M. Kurz et al., Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 66, 388-406 (1983). 

Ky' P.R. Kyle, Priv. Comm, to P. Lipman, 16 August (1989). 

Le^ Lewis et al Nature 340 525 (1989). 

Le2^ N. Lewis, California Institute of Technology Memo of 28 August 1989 
to ERAB . 

Loc J.P. Lockwood, priv. comm, to P. Lipman, 18 September (1989). 


DeN A. De Ninno 



PRBIT SCRIPT Q1 dated 89/10/07 18:23:26 


Page 15 


|Lo| G. R. Longhurst and A. J. Caffey, INEL, Communicated by S. C. T. Lien 
to ERAB 5 September 1989; G. R. Longhurst, T. J. Dolan and G. L. 
Henriksen, INEL, EGG-M-89203, 19 May 1989. 

:Mam Mamyrin and Tolstikhin, Helium Isotopes in Nature: Elsevier, Amsterdam 

(1984). 

Ma; C. R. Martin, Texas A & M, Letter of 11 September 1989 to ERAB. 

McB J. McBreen (BNL), priv. comm, to J. Bigeleisen, 7 September, 1989. 

McC D. R. McCracken, et. al. J. of Fusion Energy, in press. 

Me ; H. Menlove, preprint. 

muon?? muon catalyzed fusion 

Na A. Narath, Sandia Memo of 28 August 1989 to ERAB. 

0s[ Ostlund and Mason, Atmospheric Tritium 1968-1984, Tritium Laboratory 
Rept. No. 14, Univ. Miami, Miama, Florida. 

Pa N. J. C. Packham, K. L. Wolf, J. C. Wass, R. C. Kainthla, and J. 0 ! M. 
Bockris, J. Electroanalytical Chera., in press. 

Pe R. D. Petrasso et al . Nature 339 (183) 1989; ibid 667 (1989). 

Por Porter et al. ("Search for Energetic Charged Particle Emission from 

Deuterated Ti and Pd Foils, J. Fusion Technology, submitted 7-15-89). 

•Pry Price et al. ("Search for Energetic Charged Particle Emission from 
Deuterated Ti and Pd Foils", Phys . Rev. Lett., submitted 7-14-89) 

Qu J. Quick, priv. comm, to P. Lipman, 5 July (1989). 

Rag H. W. Randolph, SRL-ELC-89007 , 31. 

Reh Rehm et al . preprint . 

Red L. Redey, K. Myles, D. Dees, M. Krumpelt and D. R. Vissers, ANL, 
communicated by A. Schriesheim to ERAB 11 August 1989. 

Sa Sandia 

Schr Schriber et al Fusion Tech, preprint. 

Sc; C. D. Scott, ORNL Memo of 29 August 1989 to B. R. Appleton. 

Su Sundqvist et al . Uppsala University, Sweden, preprint of ms accepted 
for publication in Physica Scripta, May 15, 1989. 

Wad M. E. Wadsworth, Univ. of Utah, Letter of 6 September 1989 to ERAB. 

■Wait' C. Walling, verbal report at the April 1989 meeting of the Nat. Ac. 
of Sc.; C. Walling and J. Simons* J. Phys. Chem. 93 4693 (1989). 

Wig Williams et al preprint. 

Wi2 J. Bigeleisen, Report of 29 August 1989 on visit with H. Wiessraan on 
17 August 1989. 

Wo K. L. Wolf, N. Packham, J. Schoemaker, F. Cheng and D. Lawson. Proc. 
of the Santa Fe Cold Fusion Workshop, in press. 

IZiL Ziegler et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 2929 (1989). 


APPENDIX A 

Neutrons can be detected either at their initial energy in the MeV 
range ("fast"), or after they have lost energy by successive collision with 
light material -- particularly hydrogen ("moderation.") The detection of 
fast neutrons can be achieved by photomultiplier tubes viewing the proton 
recoil in plastic or liquid scintillation material. _S_l_o__w neutrons 
(those that have lost almost all their kinetic energy and are in thermal 
equilibrium at room temperature) are conventionally detected by the charged 
particles produced when the neutron is captured with high probability in 
the nucleus of an atom of 10B (producing an alpha particle), or in a 3He 
nucleus, producing a recoil proton. A noble gas, 3He is used in the form 
of a proportional counter, while boron can be used either in the form of 
BF3 proportional counters or in the solid form, with the boron immersed in 
plastic or inorganic scintillator viewed by photomultiplier. 

Additionally, neutrons can be detected after moderation by their 
capture in some material of very high capture cross section (such as 



PRBIT SCRIPT Q1 dated 89/10/07 18:23:26 


Page 16 


cadmium Cd) , which produces several gamma rays that may, in turn, be 
detected by a photomultiplier viewing a scintillation detector. Similarly, 
neutrons moderated in water are almost entirely captured on the protons 
("radiative capture"), giving rise to a deuteron plus a gamma ray of energy 
for the threshold of photodisintegration of the deuteron-2 . 2 MeV. 

Finally, moderated neutrons may be captured in a trace element in 
the moderator (silver is a detector of choice) to produce a radioactive 
material that can be transported away from the experimental apparatus and 
counted separately with high efficiency at low background. The emitted 
radiation is typically a beta ray (negative electron), or a characteristic 
gamma ray following the beta decay. Of course, the world has enormous 
experience since the 1930s in detecting neutrons and in detecting neutrons 
from the D 4- D fusion reaction. 


APPENDIX B 

????C0ULD WE DO WITHOUT THIS???? 

Reproduce BARC tables 
Reproduce Bockris tables 
APPENDIX C Considerations in tr 

Tritium is produced in the atmosphere by cosmic ray bombardment. 
Most of the cosmic ray produced tritium ends up in the oceans and in 
rivers. The "natural" abundance of tritium varies widely and was greatly 
increased by atmospheric testing of thermonuclear weapons in the ’50s and 
in the early '60s. The order of magnitude of tritium in ordinary water is 
T/H - 10**- 18 (1 TU) . Sources vary from 1 to 200 TU. The production of 
heavy water from ordinary water is even more efficient in the enrichment of 
tritium than deuterium from the feed material. Most of the heavy water 
currently available is produced by the H2S - H20 dual temperature exchange 
process (GS process). The tritium content of fresh heavy water produced by 
the GS process is 68 dpm/ml D20/TU feed. Processes which are more 
efficient than the GS process in heavy isotope enrichment will have a 
minimum tritium specific activity of 50 dpm/ml D20/TU feed. Heavy water 
currently being sold on the open market has a specific activity in the 
range 120 - 180 dpm/ml D20. There are sources with a specific activity as 
high as 10**4 dpm/ml 

Most of the work done to date on the search for tritium produced in 
the electrolysis of D20 in cells with palladium cathodes has been done in 
open cells. The measurements are frequently limited to assays of the 
specific activities of the starting D20 and the electrolyte after 
electrolysis. In general, there have been periodic additions of D20 to 
replace the D20 decomposed to form palladium hydride and D2(g). To 
determine how much tritium, if any, has been produced requires a complete 
inventory of the tritium at the beginning and end of the experiment. From 
the data on the current and duration of the electrolysis it is possible to 
estimate the amount of D20 which has been electrolyzed. Electrolysis will 
enrich the tritium in the D20 of an electrolytic cell. The amount of 
enrichment is primarily a function of the amount of water electrolyzed for 
a given type of cathode. It can reach a factor of 5 when 95% of the 
initial charge of water is electrolyzed. Thus a careful analysis of an 
electrolytic experiment must be carried out if one is to interpret tritium 
specific activities after electrolysis below 1000 dpm/ml D20 as anything 
other than electrolytic enrichment Bi|. 






itium concentrations. 



Energy Research Advisory Board 

to the 

United States Department of Energy 
1000 Independence Avenue, S.W. 
Washington, D.C. 20585 
(202) 586-5444 


o 

— i 


*0 

o 


October 3, 1989 


To: Cold Fusion Panel 


Enclosed are responses to Dr. Biernbaum’s July 15 request for information, 
circulated for your information and use. Also enclosed are three newspaper 
clippings, 


Enclosures 


Ml. 


Woodard 
Panel Secretary 

.Jr 


X A 

cT 


Qj 




£ 


<0 






A 


Q 60 



t- rs r* rr 




Science 


NOTEBOOK 


and ‘Heat Surges’ 



C old fusion is no longer a hot topic 
in most physics departments, but 
the University of Utah, which started 
the furor last spring, is carrying on. It 
has created a new department, 
supported by $4.3 million in state 
funds, and named it the National Colei 
Fusion Institute. . 

When Utah’s Stanley Pons and a 
British colleague, Martin Fleischmann, 
claimed to have achieved nuclear fusion 

in a jar, thousands of physicists 

everywhere were skeptical but couldn t 
resist trying the apparently simple 
experiment themselves. They failed m 
overwhelming numbers and complained 
that Pons and Fleischmann had wasted 
their time by making extraordinary 
claims and not providing even ordinary 
supporting details. , . 

Pons and Fleischmann stuck to their 
guns but refused to divulge any 
calling them 


proprietary information. Even though 
cold fusion has not been proven real by 
any generally accepted standard, 
University of Utah officials focus on its 
commercial potential. Unlike many 
strictly research outfits, the new 
institute has a director of corporate 
development. 

A statement from Utah s public 
relations office said that in the last four 
months scientists there had recorded at 
least nine “heat surges” in the cold 
fusion apparatus that “provide partial 
confirmation of the Pons-Fleischmann 
experiments.” 

The institute’s director, Hugo Rossi, 
however, told the Associated Press tha 
recent experiments have shown no sign 
of fusion. “We have a conference 
coming up here next February. If we 
don’t have any papers to present. then 
this place will be closing up shop. 

n Tt AMiVni* 




Japan Moving 
Ahead on 
Cold Fusion 

Editor Reports Imifa 
Boosts Effort, Too • 

By Tim Fitzpatrick 
Tribune Staff Writer • 

The editor of an Asian sdeoee and. 
technology journal said Wednesday 
that scientists in Japan have orga- 
nized an Institute of Fusion Science 
and are rapkfly moving ahead in cold, 
fusion. 

“Japan is the most organized of all 
the countries. rt said Ramtanu Mai* % 
tra, editor of Fusion Asia, a journal 
• of energy and other technology is- ' 
sues published in New Delhi. 7 
Mr. Maitra was in Utah to see fu- 
sion scientists at the University of 
Utah and Brigham Young Universi- 
ty. He met with BYU physicist Paul 
Palmer Tuesday and with U. of U. 
College of Mines Dean Milton Wads- 
worth and National Cold Fusion In- 
stitute Director Hugo Rossi Wednes- 
day. 

Mr. Maitre has a master's 'degree' 
In nuclear physics from the State 
University of New York at Stony. 

brook, but he said he etme to Utah as ' 
a scientific journalist not a nuclear 
scientist. 

Mr. Mai tra said the institute was 
set up Aug. l, aed some 80 scientists 
wili join under the leadership of Hi- 
des liega mt a respected scientist 
He said the Japanese are very cau- 
tious and would not embark on such 
a thing unless it was worthy-suing. 
“They have found something. It's 
very clear.” 

University of Utah offleii&L in 
their bid for fusion funding, hav$ re- 
peatadjy raised the specter of Japa- 
nese scientists using an organized ef- 
fort to commercially exploit cold * 
fusion before the United States. 

He also said the Japanese tend to 
take a long-term approach to their 
research. “They wont get very eu- • 
photic. but they wont get very dis- 
couraged. either. ... You have to get 
out of the mind-set that if It doesnt 
happen fast it doesnt happen at aU. 

“We have to remember that Japan 
has an advanced hot-fuaion research 
base,” Mr. Maitra said. “This is not 
something totally sew for them." 

The Japanese have been closed- 
mouthed about fusion, be said. "It's 
very difficult to get inf ormation. .. . 
They are probably doing a lot more.'* 

But be believes they will eventual- 
ly be willing to publish more on fu- 
sion than their U.S. counterparts, 
who tend to classify such research 
See B-2, Column 3 




Salt Lake City, Utah 
Aug 24, 1989 


Japan Reported 
Moving Ahead a 
O n Cold Fusioir 


A 


Vjtr: 




.<$ 


Continued From 

• or national - - security or patent ma- 
sons. 

Mr. Maitra alio said his own ' 
try. India, has stepped up its eeld~ 
fusion efforts at the country's nt*ks ! 
ar research centers, including the* 
Tromhay Nuclear Research Center 
Troubay, about 20 uOes from Aoea~ . 
iy, has 12,000 scientists, he said. . 
One Indian group has built »flv*.\ 
-oot-taD eathode for a cold-fiirioa 
cell, whiei far exceeds anything-, 
built in the United States. “They 
wouldn’t have gone for it t they 

anything significant,'.'. 

. He«aW Asian scientists are acute- • 
<y aware (hat eold-fusion Pescarch : 

was launched in Utah, and several eg ’ 

inenrexpressed envy that he was vis- ' 
i ting here. 


iroi 



000 * 3Dbd 


d jo do yai wodd 


617:91 68. 00 c.nH 


TEXAS A & M UNIVERSITY 

DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRY 
COLLEGE STATION, TEXAS 77843-3255 



July 25, 1989 (409)845-2011 

FAX (409) 845-4719 

IViMl C.KIALS Kts. LAfcf. 


JUL 3 1 1989 

Dr. Howard K. Birnbaum 
Materials Reseach Laboratory 
104 South Goodwin Avenue 
Obanna, Illinois 61801 



Dear Dr. Birnbaum, 



I received your ’’Dear Colleague” letter about cold fusion and have 
distributed it to the 5 colleagues who are directing groups of research on 
cold fusion at Texas A&M. 


The state of knowledge in this field is quite at the beginning and our 
knowledge in all directions is poor. It cannot hurt to examine carefully the 
materials aspect of anything used which produces nuclear reactions. However, 
it is probably the surface more than the interior of the electrode and its 
material characteristics which control the phenomena. 

That the phenomena are fundamentally sporadic and adventicious . Without 
any known changes in the conditions we can pass from active to non- active and 
as a matter of time of an electrode % t>r , i.e., it can switch on (thus, an 
electrode can be inactive for 30 of^40 hours, then be active for 10 hours, and 

then be inactive, again, all under the same conditions). We notice this both 

with tritium production and fie at . 

Although the electron microscopy is at its opening stages, it can be said 
that the results support the idea that if the surface is covered by dendritic 

growth, heat and tritium are more likely to be observed. 

I hope these observations will aid you in making progress in what may be 
a new field of science. 


Sincerely , 



J. O'M. Bockris 


JOMB/eas 



MATERIALS USED IN COLD FUSION EXPERIMENTS 
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olxk’tji'J >« e, '^ t " 



pd co^i, A , vv.'-fk At 

IA'° J iO" °V ^ 5CTKKl>k- n CT W D«r,7 

^ 1 ^ \ + U ^ 4, P.O 

c\l , ^ / 4k « r ^ *f 2 

, 1 j: -fvr^i ui'v*i M ^ <,j m 7 

l-Ky. KJ<?An co^4< ^ 

”TKj?v?- V 10 $ vi tJ; wot "^ r v'tv'^Vc)'" 'P ,s,SV) i 


\a/pO 



I. MATERIALS USED FOR ELECTROCHEMICAL EXPERIMENTS (please complete one sheet for 
each experiment) 


MATERIAL 

PURITY 

ALLOYING 

ELEMENTS 


SOURCE OF 
MATERIAL 


CATHODES 




ANODES 

(Corresponding) 

Pta'bni/WA, 


PREPARATION 
CAST OR WROUGHT 
ANNEALED 
ATMOSPHERE 
VACUUM 

SPECIAL TREATMENT 


( |go . 

& «n 

Specify C 

^ 10 

Swayj o«J A™** 

jV i a voctfcAtn wT «T 


0 




o 


0VAJ 




CHARACTERIZATION 
STRUCTURAL 
CHEMICAL 
BEFORE OR AFTER USE f^oAr. 
METHODS ^ C 3 / 

RESULTS >^L2 — 


^00°^ Jf> 2 Was 

COX 

on). Pci 

si (AS. PS o'f 

ft-cr vwx- 


cJitfet-sd vdv'ij'J Si,S,C< C . « 

c p,j O Fe «n«J (*>ssifcly CU *■ Mj ty 

SI 'rAS 7 PwM i L v a M, K- ^ r<2 ' W ' 


NOTABLE 

OBSERVATIONS 


po5^iWy Cr ) * ^ 
O, A 


oJ 




X PS sW^v*= 
“K-<ndL oP fj L 


ft 


(\j D Qvi^ncX m -fuptfVy 


D / METAL RATIO ATTAINED 

EXPERIMENT YIELDED HEAT 
NEUTRONS 
TRITIUM 
HELIUM 


yes 

yes 

yes 

yes 


* no 

X no 

X no 

__X— no 



MATERIALS USED IN COLD FUSION EXPERIMENTS 


PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: 

Prof. J.O T M. Bockris 

ORGANIZATION: 

Chemistry Department 

Texas A&M University, College Station,' TX 77843-3255 

SHORT DESCRIPTION OF TYPE OF EXPERIMENT: 

Tritium Analysis of the electrolyte using Liquid Scintillation Counter 
Tritium Analysis of the gases after recombination outside the cell. 
Heat measurements using calorimetry 


RESULTS AND COMMENTS: 



Nine out of about 30 samples have yielded large quantities of tritium 
in the electrolyte as well as in the gas phase. 

Four out of about 20 samples have given excess heat in the range of 




1. MATERIALS USED FOR ELECTROCHEMICAL EXPERIMENTS 
SAMPLE Al 


MATERIAL 

PURITY 

ALLOYING 

ELEMENTS 


CATHODE 

ANODE 

Pd - 1 mm diameter 

NI 

99.9% 

' 99.9% 

None 

None 


SOURCE OF 
MATERIAL 


Hoover and Strong 
Richmond , VA 


Belleville Wire Co. 
Belleville, NJ 


PREPARATION None WashecOii HC1 

CHARACTERIZATION 


Before use Pd and Ni were analyzed by thermal desorption mass 
spectrometry by Los Alamos National Laboratory for tritium. 
RESULTS 

No tritium in either electrode. 


NOTABLE 

OBSERVATIONS 

D/METAL RATIO 


Not measured 




O' 


EXPERIMENT YIELDED HEAT 

NEUTRONS 

TRITIUM 

HELIUM 



YES 

-----YES 

--A-YES 


YES 


NO 

NO 

NO 

NO 



1. MATERIALS USED FOR ELECTROCHEMICAL EXPERIMENTS 
SAMPLE A2 



CATHODE 

ANODE 

MATERIAL 

Pd - 1 mm diameter 

Ni 

PURITY 

99.9% 

99.9% 

ALLOYING 

None 

None 

ELEMENTS 




SOURCE OF 
MATERIAL 

PREPARATION 


Hoover and Strong 
Richmond, VA 

None 


Belleville Wire Co. 
Belleville, NJ 

Washed in HC1 

0 


CHARACTERIZATION 

Before use Pd and Ni were analyzed by thermal desorption mass 
spectrometry by Los Alamos National Laboratory for tritium. 
RESULTS 

No tritium in either electrode. 


NOTABLE 

OBSERVATIONS 

D/METAL RATIO 

EXPERIMENT YIELDED 


Not measured 

/ 

HEAT 

NEUTRONS 

TRITIUM 

HELIUM 

SO' 








(7i 


N<^ 


YES 

NO 

-----YES 

NO 

--^-YES 

NO 

YES 

NO 


1. MATERIALS USED FOR ELECTROCHEMICAL EXPERIMENTS 


SAMPLE A3 




CATHODE 

ANODE 

MATERIAL 

Pd - 1 mm diameter 

Ni 

PURITY 

99.9% 

99.9% 

ALLOYING 

None 

None 

ELEMENTS 



SOURCE OF 

Hoover and Strong 

Belleville Wire 

MATERIAL 

Richmond, VA 

Belleville, NJ 

PREPARATION 

Annealed at 800°C, 

Washed in HC1 


8 hrs. 


CHARACTERIZATION 



Before use Pd 

and NI were analyzed by thermal 

desorption mass 

spectrometry by Los Alamos National Laboratory for tritium. 

RESULTS 



No tritium in 

either electrode. 


NOTABLE 



OBSERVATIONS 



D/METAL RATIO 

Not measured 


EXPERIMENT YIELDED 

> 

HEAT YES 

NO 


NEUTRONS YES 

NO 


TRITIUM --X-YES 

NO 


HELIUM YES 

NO 




1. MATERIALS USED FOR ELECTROCHEMICAL EXPERIMENTS 
SAMPLE A4 

CATHODE ANODE 

MATERIAL Pd - 1 mm diameter Ni 

PURITY 99.9% 99.9% 

ALLOYING None None 

ELEMENTS 

SOURCE OF Hoover and Strong Belleville Wire Co. 

MATERIAL Richmond, VA Belleville, NJ 

PREPARATION Annealed at 800°C, Washei^in HC1 

8 hrs . 

CHARACTERIZATION 

Before use Pd and Ni were analyzed by thermal desorption mass 
spectrometry by Los Alamos National Laboratory for tritium. 

RESULTS 

No tritium in either electrode. 


NOTABLE 




OBSERVATIONS 




D/METAL RATIO 

. A' 

Not measured 


EXPERIMENT YIELDED 

HEAT 

YES 

NO 


NEUTRONS 

YES 

NO 


TRITIUM 

--.X-yes 

NO 


HELIUM 

YES 

NO 




1. MATERIALS USED FOR ELECTROCHEMICAL EXPERIMENTS 
SAMPLE A5 


MATERIAL 

PURITY 

ALLOYING 

ELEMENTS 

SOURCE OF 
MATERIAL 

PREPARATION 

CHARACTERIZATION 


CATHODE 

Pd - 1 mm diameter 
99.9% 

None 


Hoover and Strong 
Richmond, VA 

Acid etch in 5M HC1 
15 minutes 


ANODE 

Ni 

99.9% 

None 


Belleville Wire Co. 
Belleville, NJ 


Washed In HC1 

♦ 


,c> 


Before use Pd and Ni were analyzed by thermal desorption mass 
spectrometry by Los Alamos National Laboratory for tritium. 


RESULTS 

No tritium in either electrode. 

NOTABLE 
OBSERVATIONS 


D/METAL RATIO 


Not measured 






EXPERIMENT YIELDED 

HEAT 

YES 

NO 


NEUTRONS 

YES 

NO 


TRITIUM 

- - X -YES 

NO 


HELIUM 

YES 

NO 




eT 



1. MATERIALS USED FOR ELECTROCHEMICAL EXPERIMENTS 
SAMPLE A6 


MATERIAL 

PURITY 

ALLOYING 

ELEMENTS 

SOURCE OF 
MATERIAL 

PREPARATION 


CATHODE 

Pd - 1 mm diameter 
99.9% 

None 


Hoover and Strong 
Richmond , VA 

Acid etch in 5M HC1 
15 minutes 


. 


ANODE 

Ni 

99.9% 

None 


Belleville Wire Co. 
Belleville, NJ 

*0 

Washed in HC1 

vv 

O' 


CHARACTERIZATION 

Before use Pd and Ni were analyzed by thermal desorption mass 
spectrometry by Los Alamos National Laboratory for tritium. 
RESULTS 


No tritium in either electrode. 


NOTABLE 

OBSERVATIONS 

D/METAL RATIO 

EXPERIMENT YIELDED 






0 


Not measured 

HEAT - -YES 

NEUTRONS YES 

TRITIUM ---^-YES 

HELIUM YES 


-NO 

-NO 

-NO 

-NO 




e > 



1. MATERIALS USED FOR ELECTROCHEMICAL EXPERIMENTS 
SAMPLE A7 


MATERIAL 

PURITY 

ALLOYING 

ELEMENTS 


CATHODE 

ANODE 

Pd - 1 mm diameter 

. Ni 

99.9% 

99.9% 

None 

None 


SOURCE OF 
MATERIAL 


Hoover and Strong 
Richmond, VA 


Belleville Wire Co, 
Belleville, NJ 


PREPARATION 

CHARACTERIZATION 


Electrochemical oxide 
removal, 2 hrs. 


Washed in HC1 





Before use Pd and Ni were analyzed by thermal desorption mass 
spectrometry by Los Alamos National Laboratory for tritium, 
RESULTS 


No tritium in either electrode, 

NOTABLE 

OBSERVATIONS 



D/METAL RATIO 

\ 

Not measured 



EXPERIMENT YIELDED 

HEAT 

-----YES 

NO 


NEUTRONS 

YES 

NO 


TRITIUM 

--X-YES 

NO 


HELIUM 

YES 

NO 




1. MATERIALS USED FOR ELECTROCHEMICAL EXPERIMENTS 
SAMPLE A8 



EXPERIMENT YIELDED 

HEAT 

YES 

NO 


NEUTRONS 

YES 

NO 


TRITIUM 

-.X-yes 

NO 


HELIUM 

YES 

NO 


t 




1. MATERIALS USED FOR ELECTROCHEMICAL EXPERIMENTS 
SAMPLE B3 



CATHODE 

ANODE 

MATERIAL 

Pd - 3 mm diameter 

* Ni 

PURITY 

99.9% 

99.9% 

ALLOYING 

None 

None 

ELEMENTS 




SOURCE OF 
MATERIAL 


Hoover and Strong 
Richmond, VA 


Belleville Wire Co. 
Belleville, NJ 


PREPARATION 

CHARACTERIZATION 

RESULTS 


NOTABLE 

OBSERVATIONS 


Anneal 800°C in vacuum 
8 hrs . 


Washed in HC1 






Sf 


D/METAL RATIO 

Not measured 



EXPERIMENT YIELDED. 

HEAT 

YES 

- - ^ -NO 


NEUTRONS 

YES 

NO 


TRITIUM 

--K-YES 

NO 


HELIUM 

YES 

NO 







1. MATERIALS USED FOR ELECTROCHEMICAL EXPERIMENTS 


MATERIAL 

PURITY 

ALLOYING 

ELEMENTS 


CATHODE 

Pd - 1 mm diameter 
99 . 9 % 

None 


ANODE 

Ni 

99 . 9 % 

None 


SOURCE OF 
MATERIAL 


Hoover and Strong 
Richmond, VA 


Belleville Wire Co 
Belleville, NJ 


PREPARATION None 


Washed in HC1 


CHARACTERIZATION 



Before use Pd and NI were analyzed by thermal desorption mass 
spectrometry by Los Alamos National Laboratory for tritium. 
RESULTS 


No tritium in either electrode. 


NOTABLE 

OBSERVATIONS 


D/METAL RATIO 
EXPERIMENT YIELDED 


Not measured 

HEAT - ^ -YES 

NEUTRONS YES 

TRITIUM YES 

HELIUM YES 



NO 

NO 

NO 

NO 



1. MATERIALS USED FOR ELECTROCHEMICAL EXPERIMENTS 
SAMPLE B8 


MATERIAL 

PURITY 

ALLOYING 

ELEMENTS 


CATHODE 

Pd - 3 mm diameter 
99.9% 


ANODE 

Ni during charging 
Pt during calorimetry 

99.9% 


None 


None 


SOURCE OF 
MATERIAL 

PREPARATION 

CHARACTERIZATION 


Hoover and Strong 
Richmond, VA 


Electrochemical oxide 
removal, 2 hrs . 


Belleville Wire Co. 
Belleville, NJ 

Johnson Mathey 

Washed in HC1 


RESULTS 

NOTABLE 

OBSERVATIONS 

D/METAL RATIO 

EXPERIMENT YIELDED 




Not measured 


HEAT 

NEUTRONS 

TRITIUM 

HELIUM 


— - YES 

YES 

YES 

YES 


NO 

NO 

--X-NO 

NO 



1. MATERIALS USED FOR ELECTROCHEMICAL EXPERIMENTS 
SAMPLE B9 


MATERIAL 

PURITY 

ALLOYING 

ELEMENTS 


CATHODE 


ANODE 


Pd - 3 mm diameter 
99.9% 


NI during charging 
Pt during calorimetry 

99.9% 


None 


None 


SOURCE OF 

Hoover and 

Strong 

Belleville Wire 

MATERIAL 

Richmond , 

VA 

Belleville, NJ 




Johnson Mathey 

PREPARATION 

None 


Washed in HC1 

CHARACTERIZATION 




RESULTS 


(?) 


NOTABLE 

OBSERVATIONS 




D/METAL RATIO 

Not measured 


EXPERIMENT YIELDED 

HEAT 

YES 

NO 


NEUTRONS 

-YES 

NO 


TRITIUM 

HELIUM 

YES 

NO 


YES 

NO 




1. MATERIALS USED FOR ELECTROCHEMICAL EXPERIMENTS 
SAMPLE B1A 


MATERIAL 


CATHODE 

Pd - 3 mm diameter 


PURITY 99.9% 

ALLOYING None 

ELEMENTS 


SOURCE OF 
MATERIAL 


Hoover and Strong 
Richmond, VA 


PREPARATION 


Annealed at 1200°C for 
12 hrs . 


CHARACTERIZATION 

RESULTS 

NOTABLE 

OBSERVATIONS 



D/METAL RATIO 
EXPERIMENT YIELDED 






Not measured 

y 

HEAT --^-YES 

NEUTRONS YES 

TRITIUM YES 

HELIUM YES 


ANODE 

( Ni during charging 
Ft during calorimetry 

99.9% 

None 


Belleville Wire Co. 
Belleville, NJ 

Xq 

Johnson Mathey 
Washed In HC1 


NO 

NO 

NO 

NO 



MATERIALS USED IN COLD FUSION EXPERIMENTS 
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: D.lf. V 

ORGANIZATION: fiTO/^lC OF CfifA^fiDfi /.!/*! 


SHORT DESCRIPTION OF TYPE OF EXPERIMENT: 

tLGcrtto-iSn st usojp z f) ^ivr/'o/u^ fir Pd 

'Eutag/v vztfitcK u*£o (effit,Bjrti=/.L% ) 
- 5 T s***/***^ xmvTs C A'Qvro Ult 

- tf)L0f{iyuBrKy u/fm ft cIqsbd sy>rKy» UUMC- A CA-Tfttvnc 
. \Z PlFFBA^T n CfiTHQOBS tfJ £ D C "UaJC* 

- NtwTRbAJ Z/wmqaj / y\.s>~ i ’ <H <0*05 /i ?.£~4 

- £xc£SS fb\r£K <C 0.13 WJ. 6 a~ ^ 10 

3 

-/VO 7 " fizttiAHJ-flTIOAi F£T£cT£o 

<Sb 

So' 


_z a/./ 1 






e. 


"t 


&/JS» u\Q&tr\#(r tvVrtf 17 - MWfe sf’o/V&e 



II. MATERIALS USED FOR GASEOUS CHARGING EXPERIMENTS (please complete one sheet 
for each experiment) 

MATERIAL 7c SF<>/1/££: 

PURITY UA/KAjPi^A/ 

ALLOYING 

ELEMENTS 


SOURCE OF 
MATERIAL 


frA/£/i/0lVA/ 


PREPARATION 
CAST OR WROUGHT 
ANNEALED 
ATMOSPHERE 
VACUUM 

SPECIAL TREATMENT 

CHARACTERIZATION 

STRUCTURAL 

CHEMICAL 

BEFORE OR AFTER USE 

METHODS 

RESULTS 


'id* 

FcR 












3 * 


o 


NOTABLE 

OBSERVATIONS 






<F 


Si 


!$> 


A 


D / METAL RATIO ATTAINED 


EXPERIMENT YIELDED HEAT 

yes 


NEUTRONS 

yes 

no 

TRITIUM 

yes 

no 

HELIUM 

yes 

no 



I. MATERIALS USED FOR ELECTROCHEMICAL EXPERIMENTS (please complete one sheet for 
each experiment) 


MATERIAL 

PURITY 

ALLOYING 

ELEMENTS 


CATHODES ANODES 

(Corresponding) 

rj vt 

<?<7.9f7o 


SOURCE OF 
MATERIAL 


PREPARATION 
CAST OR WROUGHT 
ANNEALED 
ATMOSPHERE 
VACUUM 

SPECIAL TREATMENT 

CHARACTERIZATION 

STRUCTURAL 

CHEMICAL 

BEFORE OR AFTER USE 

METHODS 

RESULTS 


^o/Uspy-/tf/?77#£y 








o 




Sf 






A/0//& 


NOTABLE 

OBSERVATIONS 


D / METAL RATIO ATTAINED >ort2 


EXPERIMENT YIELDED HEAT 

yes 


_no 

NEUTRONS 

yes 


_no 

TRITIUM 

yes 

X 

_no 

HELIUM 

yes 


_no 



I. MATERIALS USED FOR ELECTROCHEMICAL EXPERIMENTS (please complete one sheet for 
each experiment) 


MATERIAL 

PURITY 

ALLOYING 

ELEMENTS 


CATHODES 

fj S>H£.bT LO-blrf 

# 

0.U7* fig 


ANODES 

(Corresponding) 



SOURCE OF 
MATERIAL 


PREPARATION 
CAST OR WROUGHT 
ANNEALED 
ATMOSPHERE 
VACUUM 

SPECIAL TREATMENT 

CHARACTERIZATION 

STRUCTURAL 

CHEMICAL 

BEFORE OR AFTER USE 

METHODS 

RESULTS 





f£t£n/£r> 




YO 



NOTABLE 

OBSERVATIONS 


D / METAL RATIO ATTAINED 
EXPERIMENT YIELDED HEAT 

yes 

-_y__no 

NEUTRONS 

yes 

)L no 

TRITIUM 

yes 

■ftE. no 

HELIUM 

yes 

__JV— no 



I. MATERIALS USED FOR ELECTROCHEMICAL EXPERIMENTS (please complete one sheet for 
each experiment) 


MATERIAL 

PURITY 

ALLOYING 

ELEMENTS 


CATHODES 

(So D Ct>7*9ci« ) 
C-n°7o fly 


ANODES 


(Corresponding) 


SOURCE OF 
MATERIAL 


PREPARATION 
CAST OR WROUGHT 
ANNEALED 
ATMOSPHERE 
VACUUM 

SPECIAL TREATMENT 

CHARACTERIZATION 

STRUCTURAL 

CHEMICAL 

BEFORE OR AFTER USE 

METHODS 

RESULTS 


UA/K/ VOiVas 



d«-v^7 et > iai fit , < U £ j > 

CO frg,R o ; Su/0 £££> 

C ty/TV fllGTDA/£ AQUA 

PAjo 



bfpofoCy 

A-T{)Aiic 

E>- ?0 fig 



NOTABLE 

OBSERVATIONS 


D / METAL RATIO ATTAINED 


EXPERIMENT YIELDED HEAT 

yes 

no 

NEUTRONS 

yes 

no 

TRITIUM 

yes 

. no 

HELIUM 

yes 

no 



I. MATERIALS USED FOR ELECTROCHEMICAL EXPERIMENTS (please complete one sheet for 
each experiment) 


MATERIAL 

PURITY 

ALLOYING 

ELEMENTS 


CATHODES ANODES 

(Corresponding) 

PA (fOD (Q3*esc~,) ft 

vW Hiltj 


SOURCE OF 
MATERIAL 


PREPARATION 
CAST OR WROUGHT 
ANNEALED 
ATMOSPHERE 
VACUUM 

SPECIAL TREATMENT 

CHARACTERIZATION 

STRUCTURAL 

CHEMICAL 

BEFORE OR AFTER USE 

METHODS 

RESULTS 


CMA /t#x. ±rusvQ£ 

sr$r 

fftij ltA j ^#££0 

f\M £t-£t7ffli1 7 QA/J//£p tyfftt 

.xf 

pc ARC jF&crAOico/’y 

flg /?r lyupufiif'/ 



NOTABLE 

OBSERVATIONS 


D / METAL RATIO ATTAINED 


EXPERIMENT YIELDED HEAT 

yes 

no 

NEUTRONS 

yes 

^_no 

TRITIUM 

yes 

_.X_no 

HELIUM 

yes 

no 



I. MATERIALS USED FOR ELECTROCHEMICAL EXPERIMENTS (please complete one sheet for 
each experiment) 


MATERIAL 

PURITY 

ALLOYING 

ELEMENTS 


CATHODES ANODES 

(Corresponding) 

n cojiLfctw) ^ 


SOURCE OF 
MATERIAL 


PREPARATION 
CAST OR WROUGHT 
ANNEALED 
ATMOSPHERE 
VACUUM 

SPECIAL TREATMENT 

CHARACTERIZATION 

STRUCTURAL 

CHEMICAL 

BEFORE OR AFTER USE 

METHODS 

RESULTS 


C finiOA, GrfiftPC) 


f) )v> fttCZh/'Co 


&> 


'r 


X A 

cT 


e> 




.O' 






ifl wc- 

<p 


NOTABLE 

OBSERVATIONS 


D / METAL RATIO ATTAINED 

EXPERIMENT YIELDED HEAT 
NEUTRONS 
TRITIUM 
HELIUM 


yes K no 

yes 4 no 

yes ^ no 

yes no 



I. MATERIALS USED FOR ELECTROCHEMICAL EXPERIMENTS (please complete one sheet for 
each experiment) 


MATERIAL 

PURITY 

ALLOYING 

ELEMENTS 


CATHODES ANODES 

(Corresponding) 

g pc) iV*.' 

? 77 0 

3>7o 


SOURCE OF 
MATERIAL 


PREPARATION 
CAST OR WROUGHT 
ANNEALED 
ATMOSPHERE 
VACUUM 

SPECIAL TREATMENT 

CHARACTERIZATION 

STRUCTURAL 

CHEMICAL 

BEFORE OR AFTER USE 

METHODS 

RESULTS 












'r 




o 


NOTABLE 

OBSERVATIONS 




.0 






0 


& 




D / METAL RATIO ATTAINED 


EXPERIMENT YIELDED HEAT 

yes 

no 

NEUTRONS 

yes 

__J<v__no 

TRITIUM 

yes 

no 

HELIUM 

yes 

no 



I. MATERIALS USED FOR ELECTROCHEMICAL EXPERIMENTS (please complete one sheet for 
each experiment) 


MATERIAL 

PURITY 

ALLOYING 

ELEMENTS 


CATHODES 

Pd Tme 

H- 

a/0a/£ 


ANODES 

(Corresponding) 




SOURCE OF 
MATERIAL 




PREPARATION 
CAST OR WROUGHT 
ANNEALED 
ATMOSPHERE 
VACUUM 

SPECIAL TREATMENT 

CHARACTERIZATION 

STRUCTURAL 

CHEMICAL 

BEFORE OR AFTER USE 

METHODS 

RESULTS 


A/Da/C 


$ 


'r 


X A 

cT 


e> 


Mfc, UTA o A AVTIVAVO^ 




MffyVin 




NOTABLE 

OBSERVATIONS 


D / METAL RATIO ATTAINED 


EXPERIMENT YIELDED HEAT 

yes 

no 

NEUTRONS 

yes 


TRITIUM 

yes 

no 

HELIUM 

yes 

no 



I. MATERIALS USED FOR ELECTROCHEMICAL EXPERIMENTS (please complete one sheet for 
each experiment) 

CATHODES ANODES 

(Corresponding) 


MATERIAL 




PURITY 




ALLOYING 

ELEMENTS 


SOURCE OF 
MATERIAL 


PREPARATION 
CAST OR WROUGHT 
ANNEALED 
ATMOSPHERE 
VACUUM 

SPECIAL TREATMENT 

CHARACTERIZATION 

STRUCTURAL 

CHEMICAL 

BEFORE OR AFTER USE 

METHODS 

RESULTS 




A/OMP 


$ 


& 


o 




Sf 








& 


NOTABLE 

OBSERVATIONS 


D / METAL RATIO ATTAINED 


EXPERIMENT YIELDED HEAT 

yes 

no 

NEUTRONS 

yes 

tC _no 

TRITIUM 

yes 

^_no 

HELIUM 

yes 

no 



I. MATERIALS USED FOR ELECTROCHEMICAL EXPERIMENTS (please complete one sheet for 
each experiment) 


MATERIAL 

PURITY 

ALLOYING 

ELEMENTS 


CATHODES 

Pd Hod (o ) 


ANODES 

(Corresponding) 



SOURCE OF 
MATERIAL 


^0 Jf’wl/ if „ \/ 


PREPARATION 
CAST OR WROUGHT 
ANNEALED 
ATMOSPHERE 
VACUUM 

SPECIAL TREATMENT 

CHARACTERIZATION 

STRUCTURAL 

CHEMICAL 

BEFORE OR AFTER USE 

METHODS 

RESULTS 


( A&C£l\/£c>) 




•*s 

cT 


e> 


AJOasc 

A 

& 


A 


Si 






A 


NOTABLE 

OBSERVATIONS 


D / METAL RATIO ATTAINED 


EXPERIMENT YIELDED HEAT 

yes 


no 

NEUTRONS 

yes 

% 

i 

>C__no 

TRITIUM 

yes 


|^_'_no 

HELIUM 

yes 

— __ _ 

____no 





MATERIALS USED IN COLD FUSION EXPERIMENTS 


PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: f-| n ^roe.C 


ORGANIZATION: 


A-T& \ 


Mur/c^ Ka» O 




SHORT DESCRIPTION OF TYPE OF EXPERIMENT: 

^ o C^VZ-VwpV- 0&A /v 

tDQU-J"!/ o c^q_^UC^Vs q ^ 




V“ d x jp A*- a VcJL 


(2> v-. 


"C Pel _ ccoj" e_cL l L Pci *+■ 


RESULTS AND COMMENTS: 

'p^vv^V ; 


%A 


e» 


CD v^o rNflA^Do^ b>-ck<y o — . A oIuaC^^ q 


(vt^eA U ?oLD o^h^Lvs C UD 9 ; 

3>r ° clS ) : Pd <^X(C^ 

[c(.dui^ ( dA —poL^ J'JJUZ. ' 

io X P;f; ~ S”x ^2<y^ &\CX^ ^-OV^ 

VD^vo^k r^^<A -u Sa. 4^ ID r^^VxL. , / pwb^iHncA / W fU^o.Q^o. c 

CD) t^wXA^vJL 'AiotDifoi ' f\0 toorsTS / 

"* / ®- ‘-'-fi-pVaJi 







II. MATERIALS USED FOR GASEOUS CHARGING EXPERIMENTS (please complete one sheet 
for each experiment) 


MATERIAL 

PURITY 

ALLOYING 

ELEMENTS 


Pj _ A 
>crq. q % 







SOURCE OF \ £ i 

MATERIAL 


PREPARATION 

CAST OR WROUGHT 
ANNEALED 
ATMOSPHERE 
VACUUM A, 

SPECIAL TREATMENT) . 

" Poi . 






^oc\-q 


CHARACTERIZATION 
1AL 



^ '-v&JL h=vK o-e 


BEF0RET5R AFTER USE 

METHODS 

RESULTS 


NOTABLE 

OBSERVATIONS 


C&£> -pox 






<F 


0 


& 


A 


& 

\JLc^cAC 






D/ METAL RATIO ATTAINED 


EXPERIMENT YIEIJ2ED HEAT 

<SeOtrqns> 

TRITIUM 

HELIUM 


vlAJC <\ 

yes 

yes 

yes 

yes 


Qy- 0>vKV 


no — sr\ -a p * 

y^jxo — y’USUrsh/' 

no l . 

no J cL;dL>^» K 



I. MATERIALS USED FOR ELECTROCHEMICAL EXPERIMENTS (please complete one sheet for 
each experiment) 


MATERIAL 

PURITY 

ALLOYING 

ELEMENTS 


CATHODES 


Pd rec\£ 

i tv\ vVn C 


ANODES 

(Corresponding) 

Ft 





SOURCE OF 
MATERIAL 


PREPARATION 
CAST OR WROUGH T 

ANNEALED 

ATMOSPHERE 

VACUUM 

SPECIAL TREATMENT 

CHARACTERIZATION 
STRUCTURAL 
CHEMICAL 
BEFORE ORdAFTER USE 
METHODS 
RESULTS 


ATq ) 

vo 


0 


r*\ W\ 


_ \ VVvyvv T o cX 1 

^xrccsV" ~y c») ' 


^ M yvvy\A c|> q (XKc^ 0 Vv £- 


OkyvlM2_'*Ji_JL “4- ^ cc 'c / | VnT 


M- 




O' 



PdL/ _D Vio 


^vs; cL( z ^> ?)oL 


NOTABLE 

OBSERVATIONS 


D / METAL RATIO ATTAINED 0-7 — O.g (je^^chci ) 


EXPERIMENT YIELDED HEAT 

yes 

no 

Z no c f i ruy^ 

NEUTRONS 

yes 

no 


TRITIUM 

yes 

no j 

f 

HELIUM 

— — . — j 

yes 

no j 



MATERIALS USED IN COLD FUSION EXPERIMENTS 


PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: J. C. Hill and C. Stassis 


ORGANIZATION: 


USDOE Ames Laboratory 


SHORT DESCRIPTION OF TYPE OF EXPERIMENT: 

Electrochemical experiments with Pd cathodes using 0 . 1M LiOD in D 2 0 electrolyte. 
Gas charging experiments with Ti metal and D 2 gas. 

Search for gamma rays from LaHD 2 . 


RESULTS AND COMMENTS: 




0 


BF^ counter and 


In the electrochemical experiments neutrons were monitored with a 
gamma rays with Ge detectors. The electrolyte temperature was monitored with a 
thermocouple. No radiation above background was observed and no unusual temperature 
excursions were seen. 

In the gas charging experiments Ti was charged wiQ\Kigh pressure D 2 gas at various 
temperatures. A number of cooling cycles down to liquid nitrogen temperatures were 
carried out. Neutrons were monitored with a BF^ counter and none above background wei 
observed . 


Gamma rays from a sample of LaHD 2 were monitored to search for evidence of the 
reaction p+d ^He + gamma. No gamma rays '.Above background were observed. 

The details of these experiments have, been described in a paper submitted to the 
Journal of Fusion Energy. A copy is enclosed. 




I. MATERIALS USED FOR ELECTROCHEMICAL EXPERIMENTS (please complete one sheet 
each experiment) 


CATHODES 


MATERIAL 

PURITY 


Polycrystalline Pd rod 


99.95% 


ALLOYING 

ELEMENTS 


None 


SOURCE OF 
MATERIAL 


Government stockpile 

Originally from Johnson and Matthey 


O 


PREPARATION 
CAST OR WROUGHT 
ANNEALED 
ATMOSPHERE 
VACUUM 

SPECIAL TREATMENT 

CHARACTERIZATION 

STRUCTURAL 

CHEMICAL 

BEFORE OR AFTER USE 

METHODS 

RESULTS 


Powder arc melted under pure Ar to form bar. 
Bar swaged to form rod. 

Rod vacuum heat treated at 600°C. 








O' 


No gamma or n radiation above background and no 
unusuaj/ temperature excursions . 


NOTABLE 

OBSERVATIONS 




<5 


D / METAL RATIO ATTAINED 1 

EXPERIMENT YIELDED HEAT 
NEUTRONS 
TRITIUM 
HELIUM 

Gamma & X-rays 


yes 

x no 

yes 

x no 

yes 

no 

yes 

no 

yes 

X No 


ANODES 

(Corresponding) 

Pt 



I. MATERIALS USED FOR ELECTROCHEMICAL EXPERIMENTS (please complete one sheet for 
each experiment) 


CATHODES 


MATERIAL Single crystal Pd rod 

PURITY 99.95% 


ALLOYING 

ELEMENTS 


None 


SOURCE OF 
MATERIAL 


PREPARATION 
CAST OR WROUGHT 
ANNEALED 
ATMOSPHERE 
VACUUM 

SPECIAL TREATMENT 

CHARACTERIZATION 

STRUCTURAL 

CHEMICAL 

BEFORE OR AFTER USE 

METHODS 

RESULTS 


Johnson and Matthey 


0 


Powder arc melted and then e“ beam melted. 
Next arc melted, swaged to rod and then zone 
refined with e“ beam. 

A 2 \" section was determined to be single 
crystal by x-ray analysis. 

w 




No gamma or n radiation above background and 
no unusual temperature excursions. 



NOTABLE 

OBSERVATIONS 


D / METAL RATIO ATTAINED 


EXPERIMENT YIELDED HEAT 

yes 

x no 

NEUTRONS 

yes 

X no 

TRITIUM 

yes 

no 

HELIUM 

ves 

no 

GAMMA & X-RAYS 

Yes 

X No 


ANODES 

(Corresponding) 

Pt 



II. MATERIALS USED FOR GASEOUS CHARGING EXPERIMENTS (please complete one sheet 
for each experiment) 


MATERIAL 

PURITY 

ALLOYING 

ELEMENTS 


SOURCE OF 
MATERIAL 


Ti metal chips, 200 mesh powder, shavings up to 34g. 

I do not know. If information needed call J. Shinar at 
(515)294-8706 after 8/7/89. 

None 


Ames Laboratory 


PREPARATION 
CAST OR WROUGHT 
ANNEALED 
ATMOSPHERE 
VACUUM 

SPECIAL TREATMENT 

CHARACTERIZATION 

STRUCTURAL 

CHEMICAL 

BEFORE OR AFTER USE 

METHODS 

RESULTS 


All material made 
shop with ordinary 



No neutrons above background during a number of 
temperature cycles. 


in 


NOTABLE 

OBSERVATIONS 



D / METAL RATIO ATTAINED l . 9 


EXPERIMENT YIELDED HEAT 
NEUTRONS 

yes 

yes 

X 

__no 

no 

TRITIUM 

yes 


__no 

HELIUM 

yes 


___no 


our 



s 

IT. MATERIALS USED FOR GASEOUS CHARGING EXPERIMENTS (please complete one sheet 
for each experiment) 


MATERIAL 

PURITY 

ALLOYING 

ELEMENTS 


LaHD^ powder, 4 g 
Chemically pure 


SOURCE OF 
MATERIAL 


Ames Laboratory 


PREPARATION 
CAST OR WROUGHT 
ANNEALED 
ATMOSPHERE 
VACUUM 

SPECIAL TREATMENT 

CHARACTERIZATION 

STRUCTURAL 

CHEMICAL 

BEFORE OR AFTER USE 

METHODS 

RESULTS 




•A 


e> 




e» 


No gamma radiation above background. Not gas charging. 

We just counted the LaHD 0 powder. 

2 


NOTABLE 

OBSERVATIONS 


✓ 


<c> 


D/ METAL RATIO ATTAINED 2.0 


EXPERIMENT YIELDED HEAT 
NEUTRONS 
TRITIUM 
FIELIUM 

Gamma & x-rays 


,y es no 

_yes no 

T es no 

.y es no 

Yes X No 



r. 


MATERIALS USED IN COLD FUSION EXPERIMENTS 
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Kelvin G. Lynn 


Mailhials R6§, Lab. 

Ayg \ % i§§§ 



ORGANIZATION: Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 


SHORT DESCRIPTION OF TYPE OF EXPERIMENT: 


Calorimetry Measurements - 8 - 
Mounted with thermal probes 
Sensitivity » 10-20 mWatts with 


RESULTS AND COMMENTS: 


D 2 0 cells - continuous monitoring 


approximately 



All cells have high surface area Pt recombiners to eliminate D 2 0 loss by 
electrolysis; and avoid Tritium concentration.^ ”\^I1 these cells are mounted in a 
temperature controlled reservoir (±.1°C). Tritium measurements are made weekly. The 
electrodes are various diameters and metallurgical conditions (annealed, outgassed and 
formed to designed dimensions). Charging has been maintained continuously for over a 
month (some longer). No unexplainable heat output has occurred in our cells. One 
cell with an electrode that had been pre-deuterated has shown a small but significant 
increase in Tritium (4a affect). This might be explained by tritium contamination in 
the D 2 gas used for charging. This is under investigaiton. Samples are presently 
being tested which are similar to that used by Texas A&M and Stanford. Presently no 
difference, when correctly measured, is observed between the heavy and light water 
cells. However, we do find a significant temperature difference in the cells, with 


constant currant. 



I. MATERIALS USED FOR ELECTROCHEMICAL EXPERIMENTS (please complete one sheet for 
each experiment) 


CATHODES 

MATERIAL Pd 

PURITY 5 i _ g t s 

ALLOYING 

ELEMENTS 


ANODES 

(Corresponding) 

Pt mesh baskets 
and 

Pt wire and foil 


SOURCE OF 
MATERIAL 


John son- Mat they 


PREPARATION 
CAST OR WROUGHT 
ANNEALED 
ATMOSPHERE 
VACUUM 

SPECIAL TREATMENT 


vacuum & high 
etched before 


purity Ar 


insertion 



CHARACTERIZATION 

STRUCTURAL 

CHEMICAL 

BEFORE OR AFTER USE 


TEM 

Scannin 




€>• 


A V < 

Auger Micropro 


b e 


METHODS 

RESULTS 


NOTABLE 

OBSERVATIONS 



D / METAL RATIO ATTAINED 

EXPERIMENT YIELDED HEAT 
NEUTRONS 
TRITIUM 
HELIUM 


yes 

X 

._no 

yes 


._no 

yes 

X 

__no 

yes 


___rto 



II. MATERIALS USED FOR GASEOUS CHARGING EXPERIMENTS (please complete one sheet 
for each experiment) 

. MATERIAL 


PURITY 

ALLOYING 

ELEMENTS 


SOURCE OF 
MATERIAL 


PREPARATION 
CAST OR WROUGHT 
ANNEALED 
ATMOSPHERE 
VACUUM 

SPECIAL TREATMENT 

CHARACTERIZATION 

STRUCTURAL 

CHEMICAL 

BEFORE OR AFTER USE 

METHODS 

RESULTS 




■ci 

c? 


e> 


,e> 




NOTABLE 

OBSERVATIONS 


✓ 


<F 


0 


& 




D / METAL RATIO ATTAINED 


EXPERIMENT YIELDED HEAT 

yes 

_x_ 

_^o 

NEUTRONS 

yes 

X 

no 

TRITIUM 

yes 

X 

no 

HELIUM 

yes 

* 

nef 



08/30/07 15:25 ©604 228 5324 


DEPT OF PHYSICS UIUC MRL 


@001 


THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 


Department of Physics 
6224 Agricultural Road 
Vancouver, B.C Canada 
V6T 2A6 


Telephone (604) 228 - 3853 
Telex 04 508576 
UBCPHYSICS 
VCR 


FAX# (604) 228 - 5324' 


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s 


. Pages (Including this cover). 


If you do not receive all pages, please contact ns immediately. 


M. 






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08/30/07 15:28 ®604 228 5324 


DEPT OF PHYSICS UIUC MRL 


®002 


materials used in cold fusion experiments 
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: 

O’, L. ^oo'tk 

ORGANIZATION: 

TW 4 vviev^*V o^r PV»>j 5 vc.i \J mv er ©J Ct?\ v vvAa ics. \/&.v> cquu^a 

„ ^ 1 ' ■' CMJrfN 

SHORT DESCRIPnON OF TYPE OF EXPERIMENT: 

to^ CLcxlov* ^e.o..-cVx 0 i\ QqVA. V'j^w v n 

IVN 6 . C^v oAt^Vc^ C Ovv\\o \ vscj/V^O^-s. toolo^cl O-o*^ . 

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"TWe. Co V> 0 v 0 v VV\<^>^_ '"pxj <a ‘Vd t,C$*CsA\oj ^OvV^cJs 4 o C-oIcSL ^OUC 

RESULTS AND COMMENTS: co.W,^\>r a wvtovg . 

P\ 50 .^^ clcawVcv'n vweV?^ \q.o^Ss. -Vo o- cK^ivojv\ Cs£ <t 

£ea^Acx pk. ^KPiCeQ-C^Cv-^S CXa^A. CV 'QjV"' - H\^r* ©.r-Vve-le *k> 

poxNoVv^'?'^ loVvcV c^^\e.w^ .(x fe.c<o vvsAa » V^> ^ 

cjsJ^v Or** C^ c_€W^-V vwviOwi, -flooO Ou. for 

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ah &j ® k c < 2 ^> Ae . cA .- f . " Sss'i re ^ i _/ f - 

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1 



08/30/07 15:26 ©604 228 5324 


DEPT OF PHYSICS UIUC MRL 


® 003 


I. MATERIALS USED FOR ELECTROCHEMICAL EXPERIMENTS (please complete one sheet for 
each experiment) 


CATHODES 


MATERIAL 

PURTTY 

ALLOYING 

ELEMENTS 


?c^ 



ANODES 

(Corresponding) 


SOURCE OF 
MATERIAL 


PREPARATION 
CAST OR WROUGHT 
ANNEALED 
ATMOSPHERE 
VACUUM 

SPECIAL TREATMENT 

CHARACTERIZATION 

STRUCTURAL 

CHEMICAL 

BEFORE OR AFTER USE 
METHODS 
RESULTS 




Vdcoovn ox 

6oo°c 9 U ovj irs^ 

000-S.Ve^. \Vs IV‘Cj'A%. 

\-X> o-cV 

(_*-> T> / i«S>\ 


e» 


£\cyjc*. 


G* roo •> v^eA C <c_ m©At,o*\. 

o\ *A>/?ck ■To.Vc.o ^'-v’SrV. 'Vo 
c_o^ovv vKe.V 4c s-v\<&cvs.c i* ejw.ev^Ti 


UL1S c 

Mo e.*ce^ Vi<2o-V oWe^ed % \ ^ VKe Q.3%> W 

^>ooJi<L'rs> v>n iroLwcje ^iLO k (S U3 o'J ^4 ^ 

OeA(.0 - 5 vvyw^Y' *-^w Vk kn. .geo e\cd sWo^V-Cv irov'i cov n; 

?A (X'C s> o-'v-A. V* cL 


uj \ v'e.i) 


NOTABLE 

OBSERVATIONS / R <£YTV<X Y"V^3 

Secxkc^v >T£ c^v*\V> C 


cfiU.. 


D / METAL RATIO ATTAINED 



0. 80+o £>. 8H . \Avc^u«us.V O.&T 


EXPERIMENT YIELDED HEAT 

yes 

X no 

NEUTRONS 

yes 

no 

TRITIUM 

yes 

X no 

HELIUM 

yes 

no 



OBatteiie 

Pacific Northwest Laboratories 
y.o. Box 999 

Richland, Washington U.S.A. y93S2 
Telephone (509) S76-S777 

Telex 15-2B74 
Facsimile (509) 375-2718 


September 14, 1989 


Professor Howard Birnbaum, Director 
Materials Research Laboratory 
104 South Goodwin Avenue 
Urbana, Illinois 61801 

RECENT RESULTS OF “COLD FUSION" EXPERIMENTS 


AT PNL 


vs* 


e> 


Dear Professor Birnbaum: 


In response to your request for information needed for your ERAB report, I am 
sending you the enclosed summary of a closed-cell electrolysis experiment, 
designed to determine whether integrated excess heat can be obtained. The 
cell has been working for about a month. As yet, we have seen no 
statistically significant excess heat , as illustrated by the attached plot, 
though there is a hint that the cell would be producing heat. The electrode 
is relatively large, however, (5 cm x 0,4 cm dia) and, according to the 
Flelschmann-Pons recipe may take up an extended time to become fully 
activated. We have held off sending you this report as long as possible in 
hopes we could report more definitive results. 

Our electrode has not shown any "burst" activity. 


Hally yours, 



John R. Morrey 
Staff Scientist 
Geochemistry Section 


JRM/jeb 
Enclosure: 1 



MATERIALS USED IN COLD FUSION EXPERIMENT 


PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATORS: Richard P. Allen, Russell W. Jones, M. D. Merz, 

John R. Morrey, Karl H. Pool, John F. Wacker 

ORGANIZATION: Pacific Northwest DOE Laboratory 

SHORT DESCRIPTION OF TYPE OF EXPERIMENT: A closed electrolysis cell with a 

Pt. rfir.nmhiner inside is being operated in conjunction with a flow calorimeter 
to determine heat balance. The cathode and anode are described on the 
accompanying sheet. The all-teflon cell holds about 500 cc of D2O-O.IM 
SLiOD. Natural water circulates through the cell in a teflon-covered copper 
tubing. The following parameters are continuously monitored: 

Water flow: about 200 cc/min 

Inlet temperature of coil: about 25°C 

Outlet temperature: about 2B°C 

Cell temperature: about 3(rC 

Ambient temperature: 20-25°C 

Cell voltage: slowly rising from 4 volts at the start to 

19.5 volts after three weeks at a constant 
current of 1 amp. 

Excess heat is calculated as outlined below; 

Hin - Enthalpy added to system 
Hout= Enthalpy taken from the system 
Hin + H (to) * H ( t ) + Wut 

H(t 0 )=Hheat(to)"enthalpy content of system at time t 0 

Hheat(to)*enthalpy stored in system as heat capacity 
at time t 

H(t)=Hlat(t)+Hheat(t)-enthalpy content of system at time t 
Hlat(t)-enthalpy stored in palladium electrode as PdD x 
relative to D 2 O 
Hin-Helec+Hexe 

Helec-Heat supplied by electric current 
Hexe=Heat supplied by unknown (nuclear?) events 
Hout=Hcond+Hbath 

Hcond-Heat lost from bath by thermal convection/conduction 
Hbath-Heat carried away from cell by circulating water 
Hexe(t)=Hlat(t)+Dheat(T (t))+Hcond(t)+Hbath(t) -Helec(t) 

T(t) “Temperature as a function of time 

%Hexe (t) -Hexe (t) /Hin 


page 1 of 2 



I. MATERIALS USED FOR ELECTROCHEMICAL EXPERIMENT (STARTING AUG. II, 1989) 


MATERIAL 


CATHODE 

Pd 


ANODE 

Pt gauze (not 
analyzed) 


PURITY 


99.84 based on ICP 
does not include C or Si 


ALLOYING ELEMENTS 
SOURCE OF MATERIAL 


Ti 540 ppm; Fe 381 ppm, Cr 162 ppm 
Pt 174 ppm; Zr 66 ppm; Sc 77 ppm. 

Master ingot cast from DOE inventory 
small tubing and Pd sponge 



PREPARATION Vacuum/argon arc melted/swaged from 3/8" diam to 4 mm 

diam. 

Vacuum annealed at 800' , C for 1 hr in 3 x 10 _ to 6 x 10’8 
torr. 

Stored in dry nitrogen backfilled desiccator until used. 
CHARACTERIZATION TCP analysis for metallic impurities 


NOTABLE OBSERVATIONS Upon 1-day rapid charging, 5 mm rod cracked badly at 

one location and on end near leads. Small cracks 
developed along length of rod. 


D/Metal RATIO ATTAINED D/Pd 
EXPERIMENT YIELDED 




5/Pd ■ 


0.738 measured by weight gain. 


HEAT: None so far 
NEUTRONS: None so far 
TRITIUM: None so far 
HELIUM: 7 


page 2 of 2 


■£ I 




3|1 


/ 


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r- “ 


✓ 




■nvHi^ Iili 

K^nil. 


| I £ | E 

llifl 

££ 8.11 

it 1 1 1 

S5 «3 5 ^ § 

9 IS *- J ^ 

6 c a> ^ = 
| 82 1 8 
H ^£ p ^o 


Magnetic stiter 0.1 M 




PJIL EXPERIMENTS 

PERCENT EXCESS ENERGY FOR CLOSED COLD FUSION EXPERIMENT 





Los Alamos National Laboratory 
Los A am os, New Mexico 87545 


CATE 

IN REPLY REFER TO 
MAIL STOP 
TELEPHONE 


August 28, 1989 

ADR:89-372 

A114 

(505) 667-1233 
(FTS) 843-1233 


■ MAitRIALS RES. LAB. 


Dr. Howard K. Birnbaum, Director 
MATERIALS RESEARCH LABORATORY 
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign 
104 South Goodwin Avenue 
Urbana, IL 61801 


SEP 51989 

RECEIVED 


Dear Dr. Birnbaum: 


A 


0 


In reply to your July 15 request for detailed information about cold fusion 
experiments, I enclose the collective responses of the Los Alamos National Labora- 
tory. Soon after the Fleischmann-Pons announcement, the Los Alamos effort with 
electrochemical cells was much larger than is represented in this mailing. However, 
some of this early work was quickly performed with simple cell configurations and 
with any palladium that was available. And / of course, fusion products- Were not 
observed. Details of these more primitive meahuFementrs--aremot"m eluded. 


Please let me know if I can be of further help. We too are anxious to resolve 
the cold fusion controversy. 



Cy: T. Claytor, WX-3/C914 

M. Fowler, INC-1 1/J514 
E. Garcia, INC-4/C346 
S. Gottesfeld, MEE-11/D429 
H. Menlove, N-1/E540 
C. Orth, INC-11/J514 
M. Paciotti, MP-DO/H809 
E. Storms, MST-11/C348 
R. Jensen, ADR/A114 
CRM-4/A150 (2) 

ADR File 


An Equal Opportunity Employer/Operated by University of California 





MATERIALS USED IN COLD FUSION EXPERIMENTS 


PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: £\ -Cr^ci* / 


ORGANIZATION: Los Alamos National Laboratory 


:HORT DESCRIPTION OF TYPE OF EXPERIMENT: 

The experiment involves placing 20-100g. of Ti alloy turnings in a stainless steel pressure 
vessel with 500 psi D2. The pressure cylinder is cooled to liquid nitrogen temperature and 
allowed to warm to room temperature in a neutron detector. A typical experiment will last 
10 days with 7-8 cooling cycles. 


-ESULTS AND COMMENTS: 

Neutron bursts have been observed both when the cylinder is warming and after it is at room 
temperature. The neutrons are emitted in a burst lasting less than lOO^jsec. These 
correlated neutron are on the scale of 100 neutrons or less. 


Every effort has been made to systematically reproduce the neutron bursts but as of yet we 
obtain neutron emisson from only 50% of our sample cylinders. Neither the mechanism nor 
the critical factors controling neutron emission have been determined. Effort continue 
to pinpoint these factors. 


♦ % 




II. MATERIALS USED FOR GASEOUS CHARGING EXPERIMENTS (please complete one sheet 
for each experiment) 

MATERIAL Titanium alloy 6-6-2 


PURITY weight % impurities C>2 


ALLOYING 

ELEMENTS 


weight %: A1 
V 
Sn 


°2 

0.15 

n 2 

0.02 

h 2 

0.003 

Y 

0.003 

5.79 

Fe 

5.43 

1.92 

Cu 


h 2 

c 


SOURCE OF 
MATERIAL 


Teledyne Allvac 
Ashcraft Ave. 


Monroe, NC 28110 


0.003 

0.02 


PREPARATION 
CAST OR WROUGHT 
ANNEALED 
ATMOSPHERE 
VACUUM 

SPECIAL TREATMENT 

CHARACTERIZATION 

STRUCTURAL 

CHEMICAL 

BEFORE OR AFTER USE 

METHODS 

RESULTS 


Bar machined on lathe to produce ty^i/nings. Turnings washed with 
degreaser (methylene chloride) and methanol. Evacuated at 200°C 
for one hour to degas, backfilled at room temperature with 500 psi D 2 . 




O' 




.0 


NOTABLE 

OBSERVATIONS 


,0 


o* 




& 


Despite attempts to repoduce identical preparation conditions, neutron 
yield not reproducible. 


D/ METAL RATIO ATTAINED 


EXPERIMENT YIELDED HEAT 

yes 

no 

NEUTRONS 

XX ves 

XX no 

TRITIUM 

yes 

no 

HELIUM 

yes 

no 



II. MATERIALS USED FOR GASEOUS CHARGING EXPERIMENTS (please complete one sheet 

for each experiment) 

MATERIAL Titanium alloy 6-4 


PURITY weight 1 impurities O 2 

0.179 

Si - 0.02 

n 2 

0.010 

B <30 ppm 

ALLOYING c 

0.02 

Y < 50 ppm 

ELEMENTS weight %: A1 6.0 

Fe 

0.18 

V 3.6 



Cu < 0.01 




H 2 32 ppm 


SOURCE OF 
MATERIAL 


RMI Titanium 
Niles, Ohio 


PREPARATION 
CAST OR WROUGHT 
ANNEALED 
ATMOSPHERE 
VACUUM 

SPECIAL TREATMENT 


Bar machined on lathe to produce turnings. Turnings washed with 
degreaser (methylene chloride) and methanol. Evacuated at 200°C 
for one hour to degas, backfilled at room temperature with D 2 . 


CHARACTERIZATION 

STRUCTURAL 

CHEMICAL 

BEFORE OR AFTER USE 

METHODS 

RESULTS 






NOTABLE 

OBSERVATIONS 




<F 


0 


& 




Despite attempts to reproduce identical preparation conditions, neutron 
yield not reproducible. 


D/ METAL RATIO ATTAINED 

EXPERIMENT YIELDED HEAT 
NEUTRONS 
TRITIUM 
HELIUM 


yes no 

xx yes ____xx_no 

yes no 

yes no 



MATERIALS USED IN COLD FUSION EXPERIMENTS 
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: £ H 'ittSHotf £ 0 TTFjFEL 


ORGANIZATION: LbNL , ELF 1 7/ 0 fi/fc J jl £S£A/?Cf/ &£cOp 


SHORT DESCRIPTION OF TYPE OF EXPERIMENT: 

£ lEctAoLY/zj FuJicN £ xf&tih EHTf IP C ElLj cP 

7W 7 YPe FcL fo.ln l;cd /ft 


RESULTS AND COMMENTS: 


•<A 


0 


7 CELLS PUP Fo(l J--T UEBKS EFcfl / ui (H HiO-HLY 

Co 

/EK//7/VE PEOJ/^oK (rfthMA S>FlbLjoilS % Po pBvjfcNS 

% * 
6-fthhfijJ AlotfS &HK6-P0 V HD CoOLp ££ DETECT^ f p 

frN bPEA u//T# LOtf PEuTduP &AC,l(r£00ri£ (c.ffjc/rj' 




77 iEf EHfioYcJ IN YPP P Aft EE fO-fto 




0 



I MATERIALS USED FOR ELECTROCHEMICAL EXPERIMENTS (please complete one sheet for 
each experiment) 


MATERIAL 

PURITY 

ALLOYING 

ELEMENTS 


SOURCE OF 
MATERIAL 


CATHODES 


Pd 

Li (,U nu 

Stick LML 



ANODES 

(Corresponding) 

ft 


Stick LhHL 


PREPARATION 
CAST OR WROUGHT 
ANNEALED 
ATMOSPHERE 
VACUUM 

SPECIAL TREATMENT 

CHARACTERIZATION 

STRUCTURAL 

CHEMICAL 

BEFORE OR AFTER USE 

METHODS 

RESULTS 


fy KoJj “ Cfc»fy AiUU 
t Ar 


o 


<c 




O' 


NOTABLE 

OBSERVATIONS 


✓ 


<F 


o 

0 s 




Ih^Cdb Cf 
airt ( u~ t jt 

1 


D / METAL RATIO ATTAINED 

EXPERIMENT YIELDED HEAT 
NEUTRONS 
TRITIUM 
HELIUM 


0 [tr.u, 


yes 

V no 

yes 

jc no 

yes 

¥_ no 

yes 

no 





MATERIALS USED IN COLD FUSION EXPERIMENTS 


PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: 
ORGANIZATION: 


T. N. Clay tor 

Los Alamos National Laboratory, WX, N Division 


SHORT DESCRIPTION OF TYPE OF EXPERIMENT: 

Neutron and tritium measurements were made on several completely solid state 
"cold fusion cells". The motivation for the cell design was to create a metal- 
insulator-semiconductor junction where a non- equilibrium condition could be 
produced by either electron injection or by diffusion of deuterium ions. Cells 
were constructed of palladium powder and slightly oxidized silicon powder 
pressed into a monolithic gas permeable pellet that was exposed to deuterium at 
110 psia resulting in a D/Pd ratio of 0.7. The cells were pulsed at a high 
voltage (500 V) and at a low duty cycle to reduce joule heating. 


RESULTS AND COMMENTS: 


v>y 


Neutron measurements were made at LANSCE (Los Alamos Neutron Scattering Center) 
because of the unique TOF (time of flight) detection system which allows a 
correlation (over a time interval of 1 to several thousand microseconds) to be 
made between the current pulse through the cell and the neutron output. Neutron 
production above background was detected on one cell however, the bank of 
helium- 3 detectors at LANSCE was probably not sensitive enough to detect low 
levels of correlated output. In addition, the neutron activity seemed to occur 
in bursts although the LANSCE instrumentation was not specifically designed to 
follow stochastically uncorrelated time histories of the neutron output over 
long times. 


c 


The measurement of" tritium levels in the cells was performed at the WX tritium 
handling facility. A new, clean, gas line was built to test for tritium in the 
cells. Tritium well above background was detected in one cell that had shown 
neutron activity. Other cells that showed little or no neutron emission gave 
results identical to the tritium level found in the fill gas. 







n. MA l FK1ALS USED FOR GASEOUS CHARGING EXPERIMENTS (please complete one sheet 
for each experiment) 


MATERIAL 

PURITY 

ALLOYING 

ELEMENTS 


fy ntAirofi- in^r'iTtej oxiJu Cd^-\(Lo 

AVJ'to ADiot-tei b . 

i/’/Vc «/Vw 

10 lYU /CO /I o . 


SOURCE OF 
MATERIAL 


PREPARATION 

CAST OR WROUGHT j> r e c. i • 

ANNEALED 
ATMOSPHERE 
VACUUM 


• /) . ^ /f- <f ,Jjo f t ^ 

7>^ TO 


SPECIAL TREATMENT Pcy ^ ^ z> / /.i W 7 **" ^ /6c ‘ 


CHARACTERIZATION 

STRUCTURAL 

CHEMICAL 

BEFORE OR AFTER USE 

METHODS 

RESULTS 


$£ /n. 

^jvrjriL. 


$> 






& 


r 


NOTABLE 

OBSERVATIONS 


<<f 


<<S 




Yy STK.%tfiLy ItJ FLu^-fJCt- 7//£ AtlUCTJ. 


of. CACk. Op' 

• < 


D/ METAL RATIO ATTAINED 

EXPERIMENT YIELDED HEAT 
NEUTRONS 
TRITIUM 
HELIUM 


4>*7 ^ u/P'/p-U, 


yes no 

tC_yes no 

yes no 

yes < no P L £ck)t*i'*js /fyr*- 

% 


MATERIALS USED IN COLD FUSION EXPERIMENTS 


PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: M c<f U ^ 

pt'C partd by Mukttl PaUoM/ 

ORGANIZATION: 

L n'hJ L Qro^fi fJ | ouj /UPDO 

SHORT DESCRIPTION OF TYPE OF EXPERIMENT: 

Tc «(*«/ W««ji u»*t: <*/£>* J +o 

CW,w D 4 3«i .+ “C fti. CyUj^i 

wofv>e placed U»W*** tajl* ♦ 44iu<v*y hfu^* r r>^ dtfttfo**. 
£ : (et'f*o**c* rtco^di 4u*e Cb^tUded *ruf»o*4 . 

\0 

RESULTS AND COMMENTS: ,v^ I , 

Aleu+I^ tu<s+i *- ^ o/ 

a Crcj> M.t*o*fto»Ji Too*. TC «/ | o r ■Wm-ji 
+o t (*.« t> a 9 04. U, fc 5T> hP«^s. 

Tc fetl alloy « f '<*>~ +*»?«'.*■« Unre~^*<W 

u ,^U +Ue*VK«/ Cyc/«*J +o 7S’ 0 ^*. , 

CWaw Su rtaits o**d 5 ai 

1 4 j 4fu4>ridi»^ o+ rv ' e 4f ^ 

+ /. 200* O . , . \ 

ffloJ^o+C <*tu,4©a<lt*j <9* ry%e ^*^ (J* fri £ OM ) 
appear 4^*Uo*cc. ^ of 

CyJ»*J . (hrfal <v- clfuA«e«d»wj kJli ^ 

a I ■fo^e #A 


A/ 


,„ 0 tv*.*--'*-* « ?f " du ''^ ^*7 

fwcm «W » f ‘* Tf . . „ T , 

O a h r **~ e ‘ * 


1 


MATERIALS USED IN COLD FUSION EXPERIMENTS 
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Edmund Storms and Carol Talcott 


ORGANIZATION: Los Alamos National Laboratory 

SHORT DESCRIPTION OF TYPE OF EXPERIMENT: Electrolytic charging of Pd using 
0.2N LiOD electrolyte. 

RESULTS AND COMMENTS: Two cells have produced tritium. Both had a sulfide 
layer applied by heating in H 2 S+paraffin vapor. A total of 65 cells have been studied. 

Most of these cells have been used to study the effect of various impurities on the charg- 
ing rate and limiting D/Pd ratio. Seven cells have been run in an attempt to duplicate 
tritium production. 



MATERIAL: Pt gauze 

PURITY: Stock. Elemental analysis is not yet available. 

ALLOYING ELEMENTS: Pd has been alloyed with Rh (10 at %), Li (1-4 at. %), C (1-3 at. 
%) and S (0.4 at. %), and Cu, Zn, S and C have been applied to the surface. 

PREPARATION: The powders were arc-melted and rolled into a coin shape, «1.5cm di- 
ameter x =0.2 mm thick. Single crystals were also grown from pressed powders. 

The sheet Pd was used as delivered as well arc-melted toproduce a coin. 



II. MATERIALS USED FOR GASEOUS CHARGING EXPERIMENTS (please complete one sheet 
for each experiment) 

MATERIAL -«.y Tf (,Ai -fcVJSn T ‘ C Al 

PURITY 

ALLOYING Al S*.^ L1% 0 

ELEMENTS Q c.01%^ V 0.01% ^ H 0.00O7 ^ (?* O.S*% 

^ Sp-fc. .s^erf ov' T t ' 4* 1 / *$■/■ <jv/oi/<rt/e. 3 

nSiter^al TVecuto* "Rolled TV^Juc/j 3v»c \zi* BW 


PREPARATION 
CAST OR WROUGHT 
ANNEALED 




U A*s> Hmic 


ATMOSPHERE T>* clfa«fA u.i 1 ' ^oWc-t®*- ***>« • 

vacuum j. i uv . m »« k ui^ e>e d-Vw W*%€ cVlontle. 

SPECIAL TREATMENT Ue^ffcUt la*»e >uvm j k U \ J 

44vfn 4k e~ pure 

CHARACTERIZATION h*\<«** «*f 40*100* C , ^ , effort) D 

STRUCTURAL ^ 4ur*«»« 

CHEMICAL C } 4«Wt u50 ’*' U 'J , * uC J 

BEFORE OR AFTER USE « , , i , *4_ r . M LU T} /*r- . *> 0 */ 

METHODS ? Comtek louof -Vc- »/T O.T 

“So-, fc.4 4«i TVtfca -.1 r,-u jbM / 

Ti’feti Uee^ 4-0 uork. sepormtely . 


NOTABLE 
OBSERVATIONS 




a 4 *oo*"» +P*-»pf a*J 4u**y 

rDOCi\Y/llIUi^J ^>4 fN 

Cycle*. fcurcfa 4ee^ ai KijW <4 #00 fit. Pa p^u»*c 

a* A a4 «£.0l pic* . tfo nfufr*** Aff* 

loVvle accxaAc, e**"Uio* is tfC'Y *c4*>e. 


D/ METAL RATIO ATTAINED 

EXPERIMENT YIELDED HEAT 
NEUTRONS 
TRITIUM 
HELIUM 


. 05 - 4 ° #•*/ 

^y es 

„K„yes 

_ yes 

, yes 


.no 

no 

.no 

no 



MATERIALS USED IN COLD FUSION EXPERIMENTS 
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: ^JcoWn “ ,AJt ^ rCML ~ 

ORGANIZATION: Lu5 A(am03 KkWvO^ L^LovolW^ 

Z-e5 .4 /<Xvn 0_f , aJm sys^s ■ . 

SHORT DESCRimON OF TYPE OF EXPERIMENT: 

tMWAYKwb ^ " T ' ^1 S ** WAk 

X)^ c^. a AW-N .^kS. UUl« "77°/C C-cO &»>" 


tOt v*rf ►tnO CxVo A T i l A.ij cyJ h ■ 

RESULTS AND COMMENTS: 




,0 


_L W- ^ <*> 

Ak ^WjSl *«■***» -nV ^ ^ 

V O^VTS ^ cwc <V W Ut* ^ 

^ ^ wv -30^ ^ ^ ‘1^ W,4s ^ WMl 

^ Jk (to 0&A<*S L> l<rt Yvlv*--Wo -Owv.-dtt.Ji w ~^ x - 


0 I ^ 

^ $£ vffl \>^*a ^ ™ a - ^ 

jv^vAVs cxaji_ \vsV v^^^vlMz. ^ ^ 

\ 0 $&f ■^ )cVYU ' Ut f Tv ttX (Al^. 

* ft. 



£-W 


\jO^_ (/vii-xk *yz&v\ $oyv\s_ JW*\b$w\ Q/yAVS9uka 

5 — k «- Wh Aotya WpvCfovV, 



2 


The wire was used as delivered. 

A few samples of coin were annealed in vacuum to determine the effect of this treat- 
ment. Most were not annealed. 

CHARACTERIZATION: A tritium producing electrode has been examined using 
ESCA, Auger and photomicrographic techniques. A few other electrodes have been ex- 
amined by photomicrographic techniques. Lack of resources have limited such exami- 
nations. 

NOTABLE OBSERVATIONS: 

1. Very small concentrations of impurities change the interaction between Pd and D. 
Addition of S, Li or Rh improves the interaction while carbon reduces deuterium up- 
take. Surface C, Zn or Cu significantly reduces deuterium uptake. 

2. Surface S or Ni causes recombination when exposed to oxygen in the air resulting in 
self heating. 

3. There is a combination of C and S on the surface that can produce tritium. 

4. Tritium production occurs on the surface, not in the bulk. Therefore, the bulk D/Pd 
ratio appears to have limited significance. 




i^C-H 


MATERIALS USED IN COLD FUSION EXPERIMENTS 
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: M.TVwU/, OtIVn , G, 

d. IcAC^wur^ i A. 1/OvlWW^ 

ORGANIZATION: \,o^> AA.cvmC5 KA.4\rv\.^ 

SHORT DESCRIPTION OF TYPE OF EXPERIMENT: 

(y yjoUjirU. e ^2X\JJ> ^ oicC-Cl^VCS ciJst^VvUX. \ ^K^\iVroOYvt7 ^ T'\ 

(yJtUiu, o.l m LaOD vn Dp J oJ, "?+ (W^<w>. 




.0 


RESULTS AND COMMENTS: 

c Wo wlwamM. (CjsoAi W Nft ^ W**- ^ " 






& 


(V 3 o YKO*.*xA£«iJliL (o^mYV\o\ C^wWA 0 x 21 ^ C 

Cj^AWnOPy - v 

/ 0 o m£(A 5 vvAliL. 'Pd X-Va.v^ 

\.e> 

AhvvJ- <K -Hc^ «t S ^ Tn',W 

d^\Ciw\Vnx^}^ Vv> 



II. MATERIALS USED FOR GASEOUS CHARGING EXPERIMENTS (please complete one sheet 
for each experiment) “ 

MATERIAL P 'X'VX V \ T, U? cnt T. G4 oJ&xa, 


PURITY \ 

ALLOYING T, G-H = Afi. , 

ELEMENTS T . G - G - - G% Ak ) (o 7 o ? % Sn 


SOURCE OF VJ^v'ioVoJ Sv p t UL\J) LAML S4 oc(c , 

MATERIAL 


PREPARATION 
CAST OR WROUGHT 
ANNEALED 

ATMOSPHERE r x » J 

Y^qjjUM G; o r>tv»>.\ Vacuum <00.0 

SPECIAL TREATMENT 

CHARACTERIZATION 
STRUCTURAL 
CHEMICAL 

BEFORE OR AFTER USE 
METHODS 
RESULTS 


.J& 

, @ - aoJ^w 1 nr 4-Uv\ 
QlooW A ~^"0 " FT H\^2 t ) vXWv^Vyv^ 

“bfc ^-o /Hm Uiiib D' 


V 


A 


NOTABLE 

OBSERVATIONS 




oJ{ ((Tvv'rft “hi rv^% Uvtvvv^ 
\0o W^AyUYVO V* COvVNUlLaO^ 


l Ci 

‘pcwst. Y\JLM_W*-\ bvMP’t'S ( 0|*MI „JUL^ 

r ~T -3o c . 

^p v -VV\ XoCnXJfKc. ^t^V\>jL> C%- "XcYxVL^V.irn Co "\Vx. — ' 

(1 CLotlvXiN C^clto to (^VV0(itva<5 


(vrvc^ UO vurv^Vv 

D/ METAL RATIO ATTAINED 


EXPERIMENT YIELDED HEAT 

__<*L__yes 

no 

NEUTRONS 

yes 

no 

TRITIUM 

yes 

no 

HELIUM 

yes 

no 


I. MATERIALS USED FOR ELECTROCHEMICAL EXPERIMENTS (please complete one sheet for 
each experiment) 


material 

PURITY 

ALLOYING 

ELEMENTS 


SOURCE OF 
MATERIAL 


CATHODES 


7T / 0 CL A.c£ uo.+h s Ci y T 


7 T cm (?c ^ pe-v b/V c(z m * 

f, 2 S’ ; (Lu\ tYLtfei- 


J 




ANODES 

(Corresponding) 


Ph /Afi si 


1 


PREPARATION 
CAST OR WROUGHT 
ANNEALED 
ATMOSPHERE 
VACUUM 

SPECIAL TREATMENT 

CHARACTERIZATION 

STRUCTURAL 

CHEMICAL 

BEFORE OR AFTER USE 

METHODS 

RESULTS 


lOOYVU 






$ 


'r 


X A 

cT 


e> 


NOTABLE 

OBSERVATIONS 


^ , 

-k - $ okr5 

of iv (Xiuk ^00 W (X , 

G. / /V) IjOD ki ko 


D / METAL RATIO ATTAINED 




EXPERIMENT YIELDED HEAT 

yes 


_no 

NEUTRONS 

yes 

__j<L 

_no 

TRITIUM 

yes 


.no 

HELIUM 

yes 

%. 

.no 



I. MATERIALS USED FOR ELECTROCHEMICAL EXPERIMENTS (please complete one sheet for 
each experiment) 


CATHODES 


MATERIAL 



7 

PURITY 

i 

ALLOYING 

7 

ELEMENTS 

* 

SOURCE OF 

LAnl 5&c 

MATERIAL 

PREPARATION 

U$ec / (fo 

CAST OR WROUGHT 

ANNEALED 


ATMOSPHERE 


VACUUM 

rAaJ'Vcd 

SPECIAL TREATMENT 


U-V1 V At 

CHARACTERIZATION 


STRUCTURAL 


CHEMICAL 


BEFORE OR AFTER USE ~ 

METHODS 

<5 

RESULTS 


ANODES 

(Corresponding) 

VV Uovr-i. \iY 

(vusK 








,o 




& 


<7 


NOTABLE 

OBSERVATIONS 


-5^ i 

Cks“f Pd skouxS oy* 

7 IwtiV' S^O J) 


D / METAL RATIO ATTAINED 

EXPERIMENT YIELDED HEAT 
NEUTRONS 
TRITIUM 
HELIUM 


.yes 

.yes 

.yes 

.yes 


K no 

X no 

A no 

& no 



I. MATERIALS USED FOR ELECTROCHEMICAL EXPERIMENTS (please complete one sheet for 
• each' experiment) 


MATERIAL 

PURITY 


CATHODES 


ANODES 

(Corresponding) 

TV 


ALLOYING 

ELEMENTS 


SOURCE OF 
MATERIAL 


Pvst^vv uR LAM V — 


PREPARATION 
CAST OR WROUGHT 
ANNEALED 
ATMOSPHERE 
VACUUM 

SPECIAL TREATMENT 

CHARACTERIZATION 

STRUCTURAL 

CHEMICAL 


O.UA L\0D w \.° 


BEFORE OR AFTER USE 

METHODS 

RESULTS 




o 

0 s 




NOTABLE 

OBSERVATIONS 




w> 







(oo w>A 



D / METAL RATIO ATTAINED 


EXPERIMENT YIELDED HEAT 

_yes 


_no 

NEUTRONS 

yes 

)( 

.no 

TRITIUM 

yes 

X 

.no 

HELIUM 

yes 

X 

.no 





AUG 31 '89 13=51 ORNL-BRfVWF FAXfS 15-574-0323 


P.2/18 


OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY 

OPERATED BY MARTIN MARIETTA ENERGY SYSTEMS, INC, 


POST OFFICE BOX 2008 
OAK RIDGE, TENNESSEE 37831 


August 31, 1989 


Dr. Howard K. Bimbaum 
Office of the Director 
Materials Research Laboratory 
104 South Goodwin Avenue 
Urbana, Illinois 61801 

Dear Dr. Bimbaum: 



In response to your request of July 15, 1989, enclosed are cold fusion reports from the four active 
experimental groups at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). 


If you have any questions, please contact me at (615)574-4321. 

C\ 


Sincerely, 


BRA:jcm 
cc: J. B. Ball 


W. Fulkerson 
R. K. Genung 
M. L. Poutsma 
M. W. Rosenthal 
M. J. Saltmarsh 
J. Sheffield 
J. O. Stiegler 
A. W. Trivelpiece 






& 





Bill R. Appleton 
Associate Director 



P.3/18 


- AUG 31 '89 13:52 ORNL-BRA/WF FAX#6 15-574-0323 


MATERIALS USED IN COLD FUSION EXPERIMENTS 


PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: C. D. Scott 

ORGANIZATION: Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Chemical Technology Division 

SHORT DESCRIPTION OF TYPE OF EXPERIMENT: 

Electrochemical cells utilizing Pd cathodes and Pt anodes in 0.1 to 0.2 N LiOD were 
used. The electrolysis cell was insulated and a cooling jacket with circulating water 
used for heat removal. The neutron flux and gamma ray spectra were measured, 
and periodic electrolyte sampling for T was carried out. Electrical current densities 
of 100 to 600 mA/cm 2 Pd were used. In all completed experiments the cells were 
open, allowing the evolved D 2 and O 2 gasses to leave the cell. In the current, 
uncompleted experiment, an internal recombiner is being used so that the system is 

completely closed. 

RESULTS AND COMMENTS: 

In some of the open-system experiments, apparent excess power was detected for 
periods of several hours, usually in the range of 5 to 10%. However, during one 
12-hour period an apparent imbalance of up to 50% was seen. These excursions, 
which were transitory, appeared after the current density was increased. They 
could be extended by perturbing the system, for example changing the electrolyte 
temperature or increasing the electrolyte concentration. There were two occasions, 
uncorrelated with any excess power observations, where the neutron detector 
count rate exceeded average background values by greater than three standard 
deviations. Recent, very preliminary results from a closed system, which includes a 
recombiner, are also indicating a power imbalance of -5%, although this experiment 

is not yet complete. 


1 



AUG 31 '89 13=53 ORNL-BRA/WF FAX#6 15-574-0323 


‘ P.4/18 


I. MATERIALS USED FOR ELECTROCHEMICAL EXPERIMENTS (please 
complete one sheet for each experiment) 


CATHODES 


MATERIAL 

PURITY 

ALLOYING 
ELEMENTS 

SOURCE OF 
MATERIAL 

PREPARATION 
CAST OR WROUGHT 
ANNEALED 
ATMOSPHERE 
VACUUM 

SPECIAL TREATMENT 

CHARACTERIZATION 
STRUCTURAL 
CHEMICAL 

BEFORE OR AFTER USE 
METHODS 
RESULTS 


Pd 


99 . 9 % 


None 




Materials Research Corp. 

<F 

Cast in Ar, swaged to 
appropriate diam, then 
annealed at 950° C under 
vacuum for 4 hours 

0.28-cm diam x 8-cm 
cylinder 

<o 


ANODES 

(Corresponding) 
Pt wire 
99.9+% 

None 

Englehard Corp. 


NOTABLE 
OBSERVATIONS 


. 


<a 


Periods of several hours 
of apparent excess power in 
the range of 5 to 10% were 
observed after changes to 
experimental conditions. 


24 ga wire 


D/METAL RATIO ATTAINED 


EXPERIMENT YIELDED HEAT . 

_X yes 


no 

NEUTRONS 

_ ves 

x 

no 

TRITIUM 

yes 


no 

HELIUM 

ves 

X 

no 


AUG 31 '89 13=53 ORNL-BRA/WF FAX#6 15-574-0323 


P.5/18 


I. MATERIALS USED FOR ELECTROCHEMICAL EXPERIMENTS (please 
complete one sheet for each experiment) 


MATERIAL 

PURITY 


CATHODES 

Pd, 0.28-cm diam x 
9 cm 

99.9% 


ANODES 

(Corresponding) 
28 ga Pt wire 

99.9+% 


ALLOYING 

ELEMENTS 


None 



SOURCE OF 
MATERIAL 

PREPARATION 
CAST OR WROUGHT 
ANNEALED 
ATMOSPHERE 
VACUUM 

SPECIAL TREATMENT 

CHARACTERIZATION 

STRUCTURAL 

CHEMICAL 

BEFORE OR AFTER USE 


Materials Research Corp. 

Jr 

Cast in Ar, swaged to 
appropriate diam 


A 


0.28-cm diam x 9 -cm 
cylinder 


METHODS 

RESULTS 



NOTABLE 

OBSERVATIONS 


Neutron count rate exceeded 
three standard deviations 
of the average background 
during a 4-honr period. 


None 


Englehard Corp. 


28 ga wire 


D/METAL RATIO ATTAINED 
EXPERIMENT YIELDED HEAT 

yes 

X- 

no 

NEUTRONS 

... yes 

X_ 

no 

TRITIUM 

yes 

.. X - 

no 

HELIUM 

, yes 

X- 

no 


. ftUG 31 '89 13=54 ORNL-BRA/WF FAX#6 15-574-0323 


P.6/18 


MATERIALS USED IN COLD FUSION EXPERIMENTS 


PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: D. P. Hutchinson 
ORGANIZATION: Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Physics Division 

SHORT DESCRIPTION OF TYPE OF EXPERIMENT: 

Four calorimetry cells were operated for a period of over 1800 hours with two cells 
using 6.35-mm diam. x 10-cm long palladium cathodes in a 0.2 M 6 LiOD electrolyte, 
one cell with a similar cathode in a 0.1 M 6 LiOD electrolyte solution and one cell 
containing a cast 1.27-cm diam. x 10-cm palladium rod in a 0.2 M electrolyte. All 
cells were constructed with an electrolyte volume of 300 cm^ and a 54 mm o.d. 
quartz envelope. No D 2 /O 2 recombination was assumed. All of the cells contained a 
platinum wire spiral wound anode with a diameter of 30 mm. Two of the cells had 
6.35 mm palladium rod electrodes precharged in D 2 gas to a stoichiometry of 0.6. 

RESULTS AND COMMENTS: 

The cells were operated at a current density of 50 mA/cm 2 for 48 hours and then 
at a current density of 250 mA/cm 2 for over 1800 hours. Three of the cells have 
remained in power balance within the experimental uncertainty of hi watt for the 
duration of the experiments. However, one of the cells, containing one of the non- 
precharged rods, exhibited an apparent power deficit of approximately 2 watts for 
the first 75 hours of operation, followed by an apparent power excess of 
approximately 3 watts for a 600-hour period beginning 150 hours after the 
beginning of the experiment. From 75 hours to 150 hours, the cell was in power 
balance. Shortly after the excess power was indicated, the cell was placed in a 
neutron counter containing a pair of NE213 scintillator detectors with pulse shape 
discrimination. The neutron emission level of the cell was determined to be less 
than 1 x 10* 24 neutrons/s/D-D pair. Various changes were made to the cell 
during the period of apparent imbalance to improve the calorimetry measurement 
and to determine the effect of changes on the observation. The imbalance was not 
significantly affected by the bath temperature changes between 13 and 20°C, but 
disappeared with a reduction in temperature to 5°C, The apparent excess 
reappeared when the temperature was raised to 13 6 G, disappeared when the 
temperature of the bath was once again lowered to 5°C, and did not return after a 
temperature increase to 13°C. Subsequently, this cell has remained in power 
balance for 1100 hours. We are planning a thorough material analysis of the rods 
following the termination of these initial experiments in September 1989 and 
attempting to reproduce these observations. 



. AUG 31 '89 13:55 ORNL-BRfVWF FftX#S 15-574-0323 


P.7/18 


I. MATERIALS USED FOR ELECTROCHEMICAL EXPERIMENTS (please 
complete one sheet for each experiment) 


MATERIAL 


PURITY 


CATHODES 

Palladium (6.35-mm . diam 
x 10-cm long rod) 

99 . 96 % 


ANODES 

(Corresponding) 

Platinum wire, 
#20 gauge 


ALLOYING 
ELEMENTS 

SOURCE OF 
MATERIAL 

PREPARATION 
CAST OR WROUGHT 
ANNEALED 
ATMOSPHERE 
VACUUM 

SPECIAL TREATMENT 

CHARACTERIZATION 
STRUCTURAL 
CHEMICAL 

BEFORE OR AFTER USE 
METHODS 
RESULTS 

NOTABLE 

OBSERVATIONS 


None 


Johnson-Matthey 




Wrought 

Vacuum annealed @ 900°C 
for 2 hours 

,<«r 

In progress 


,e» 


The cell that exhibited an apparent power 
imbalance was accidentally contaminated 
with a stainless steel screw in the electrolyte 



during assembly. It was not possible to remove 
the screw after the experiment began, and it 
remained in the cell for the entire duration. 

The significance of this is not known. 

D/METAL RATIO ATTAINED 

As yet undetermined 

EXPERIMENT YIELDED HEAT , 

. yes 

no (See text) 

NEUTRONS 

ves 

X no 

TRITIUM 

. yes 

X.„. no 

HELIUM 

_ ves 

X no 



P.8/18 


. AUG 31 '89 13:56 ORNL-BRA/WF FAX#6 15-574-0323 


MATERIALS USED IN COLD FUSION EXPERIMENTS 


PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: E. L. Fuller, Jr. 


ORGANIZATION: Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Metals and Ceramics Division 

SHORT DESCRIPTION OF TYPE OF EXPERIMENT; 

A power calorimeter designed around a 40-gallon (water) temperature bath, 
controlled to 0.01°C or better, is currently in operation with four cells. Up to eight 
cells can be accommodated. 


Each cell holds 75 mL of electrolyte (either 0.1 N 6 LiOD/D20 or 0.1 N 6 Li0H/H20), 
and is equipped with a mechanical stirrer and calibration heater. The calorimeter 
cells can be operated over three power output ranges: (1) with an air jacket for 

very low power, (2) with a water jacket for intermediate power output, and (3) 
with no jacket (i.e., direct connection of the cell to the bath) for the highest power 
output. 


RESULTS AND COMMENTS: 

In this experiment, the cells are brought on-lim^vo at a time; one with light water 
and one with heavy water. The current is connected in series between the two 
cells. This has the advantage of not only subjecting the cells to identical currents, 
but also providing a check on the electrolysis rate and the amount of makeup water 
required. 

No excess heat or tritium (above background) has been detected in these 
experiments to date. 





RUG 31 '89 13=57 ORNL-BRA/WF FRX#6 15-574-0323 


P.9/18 


I. MATERIALS USED FOR ELECTROCHEMICAL EXPERIMENTS (please 
complete one sheet for each experiment) 


MATERIAL 


CATHODES 

Palladium 


ANODES 

(Corresponding) 
Ni Rod 


PURITY 


99.95% 


ALLOYING None 

ELEMENTS 


SOURCE OF 
MATERIAL 

PREPARATION 
CAST OR WROUGHT 
ANNEALED 
ATMOSPHERE 
VACUUM 

SPECIAL TREATMENT 
CHARACTERIZATION 


Johnson-Matthey 


Wrought 

Annealed at 600° C 
for 4 hours 


c? N 


0 


progi 


In progress 


Annealed at 600° C 
for 4 hours 


STRUCTURAL 
CHEMICAL 

BEFORE OR AFTER USE 
METHODS 
RESULTS 

NOTABLE 

OBSERVATIONS 


<c? 


e 


<$b 


During the initial stages of electrolysis, a fine, 
black powder (probably nickel oxide) formed 
in the cell. 


D/METAL RATIO ATTAINED Undetermined; experiment in progress. 


EXPERIMENT YIELDED HEAT 

yes 

X 

no 

NEUTRONS 

yes 

X 

no 

TRITIUM 

, yes 

X 

no 

HELIUM 

yes 

X 

no 


. PUG 31 '89 13=57 ORNL-BRA/WF FAX#615-574-0323 


P.10/18 


I. MATERIALS USED FOR ELECTROCHEMICAL EXPERIMENTS (please 
complete one sheet for each experiment) 


MATERIAL 

PURITY 


CATHODES ANODES 

(Corresponding) 

Palladium Pt wire 

* 

>99.9% 


ALLOYING None 

ELEMENTS 


SOURCE OF 
MATERIAL 

PREPARATION 
CAST OR WROUGHT 
ANNEALED 
ATMOSPHERE 
VACUUM 

SPECIAL TREATMENT 

CHARACTERIZATION 

STRUCTURAL 

CHEMICAL 

BEFORE OR AFTER USE 

METHODS 

RESULTS 


In-house 


Cold-cast under an cV 
Ar atmosphere in a 
copper mold 

<b 


0 


In 


progress 


NOTABLE 
OBSERVATIONS 


8 ^ 




0 


<$b 




With the calorimeter design employed in this 
experiment, mechanical stirring is essential for 
obtaining a correct cell output power from the 
thermistor response (even at 200 mA/cm^). 


D/METAL RATIO ATTAINED Undetermined; experiment in progress. 


EXPERIMENT YIELDED HEAT yes 

NEUTRONS yes 

TRITIUM yes 

HELIUM yes 


no 

X_ no 
no 

X_ no 


AUG 31 '89 13:58 ORNL-BRA/WF FAX#6 15-574-0323 


P.11/18 


MATERIALS USED IN COLD FUSION EXPERIMENTS 


PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: E. L. Fuller, Jr. 

ORGANIZATION: Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Metals and Ceramics Division 
SHORT DESCRIPTION OF TYPE OF EXPERIMENT: 

Six electrochemical cells using a variety of cathodes (different materials, sizes, or 
treatments) were operated in an arrangement suitable for neutron counting with 
BF3 detectors. The cathodes for the six cells were as follows: (1) two. cold-cast, 
swaged 3.1-mm-diam by 5 -cm palladium rods, (2) one cold-cast 6.25-mm-diam by 
5 -cm palladium rod, (3) one 44-g cold-cast palladium "button," (4) one cold-cast 
10.9-mm-diam by 3-cm palladium rod, and (5) one cold-cast 6.25-mm-diam by 
5-cm titanium rod. The anodes were either platinum or platinum/rhodium wire 
and the electrolyte was 0.1 N 6 LiOD. All cells were operated at current densities 
ranging from 25 to 300 mA/cm 2 . 


Initially, a single BF3 detector (—2% efficiency for Cf252 fission neutrons with ca. 
200 counts per hour background), immersed in a water moderating bath, was used 
to monitor possible neutron emission from six surrounding electrochemical cells. 
After having observed an increase in the count rate of this detector, lasting about 
18 hours and persisting even with th^ electrochemical cells removed from the bath 
a second BF3 detector was introduced to monitor the background level. Pulse 
height discrimination was used with both detectors to reduce noise counts, and a 
multichannel analyzer was used to observe the overall BF3 output. Subsequently 
two unexplained increased / the BF3 detector count rate were recorded while the 
experiment was unattended. In both of these instances the background monitor 
detector count rate remained constant. In one of these instances the count rate 
increased for about 24 hours. This incident was somewhat similar to the one that 
had led earlier to the introduction of the background monitor detector and a 
subsequent one in which the detector became very noisy for about 24 hours (t e 
source of this noise was not discovered. In the second instance of increased count 
rate, two increases were recorded, lasting approximately 45 and 60 minutes, 
respectively, with the background monitor detector showing no corresponding 
increases. Such large increases in recorded count rates wee occasionally observed 
in both counters and were caused by microphonics. Although the recorded 
increases in count rate while the experiment was unattended could have been 
caused by neutrons from the cells, not enough control existed in the experiment to 
conclude that this was definitely the case. The cell with a 44 gram electrode 
exploded (presumably D2 + O2) and since that date neither of the BF3 detectors 
have shown any variation above background (for about two months). 


RESULTS AND COMMENTS: 



AUG 31 '89 13:59 ORNL-BRA/WF FAX#6 15-574-0323 


P. 12/19 


I. MATERIALS USED FOR ELECTROCHEMICAL EXPERIMENTS (please 
complete one sheet for each experiment) 


MATERIAL 


CATHODES 


Palladium, Titanium 


ANODES 

(Corresponding) 

Platinum or 
Platinum/Rhodium 


PURITY 

ALLOYING 
ELEMENTS 

SOURCE OF 
MATERIAL 

PREPARATION 
CAST OR WROUGHT 
ANNEALED 
ATMOSPHERE 
VACUUM 

SPECIAL TREATMENT 

CHARACTERIZATION 
STRUCTURAL 
CHEMICAL 

BEFORE OR AFTER USE 
METHODS 


£99.9% 


None 


In-house 

Cold-cast under Ar using 
copper molds. 3.1-mm rods 
were swaged from a single 
6.25 -mm rod. 


0 






RESULTS 


NOTABLE 

OBSERVATIONS 


. V • . 

B -phase slowly undergoing a 
phase transition, but with no 
detectable a-phase (by x-ray 
diffraction). One electrode 
showed a large rhenium level 
after use (by glow-discharge 
mass spectrometry). 

The after-use palladium electrodes 
examined to date have shown a 
remarkable ability to retain deuterium. 



one electrode 

remained 

above 0.5. 

D/METAL RATIO ATTAINED 

>0.82 for Pd; 

not determined for Ti. 

EXPERIMENT YIELDED HEAT 
NEUTRONS 
TRITIUM 
HELIUM 

_ yes 

X 

. no 

yes 


„ no (see text) 

ves 

X .. 

. no 

ves 

X 

- no 



AUG 31 '69 14=00 ORNL-BRA/WF FAX#6 15-574-0323 


P. 13/18 


MATERIALS USED IN COLD FUSION EXPERIMENTS 
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: J. G. Blencoe 

ORGANIZATION: Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Chemistry Division 
SHORT DESCRIPTION OF TYPE OF EXPERIMENT: 

Investigation of reactions between high-purity palladium and deuterium at high 
gas pressures and low temperatures. 


RESULTS AND COMMENTS: 

A series of experiments were conducted to elucidate reactions between Pd and D 2 
at high pressures and low temperatures. In our initial Pd-D2 experiment, 0.7 grams 
of 0.1 -mm thick palladium ribbon (Table 1) was wrapped around the tip of the 
lower (sample) thermocouple and sheathed with platinum foil. Pressurization of 
this sample to 380 MPa with 99.87% D 2 gas produced a rapid temperature rise 
(from 27 to 60°C) that, was much larger than a simultaneous temperature rise (from 
27 to 32° C) recorded by the reference thermocouple. This thermal anomaly 
decayed to the bath temperature after 12 minutes. During and for five days after 
this pressurization, the neutron flux was monitored at sampling times ranging from 
6 seconds to 10 minutes. No sustained neutron flux above background was 
observed. Subsequent pressurizations of D 2 gas alone and 0.7 grams of palladium 
with H 2 gas produced thermal effects similar to the initial run, indicating that the 
thermal anomaly observed during our first Pd-D2 experiment can be attributed to 
(1) PV work accompanying gas pressurization, (2) heat released during the 
formation of palladium deuteride, and (3) the somewhat different geometries of the 
sample and reference thermocouples. 

The pressure vessel was then packed with 7.0 grams of palladium in the form of 
(1) ~1 gram of 0.1 -mm thick ribbon wrapped around the sample thermocouple, 
and (2) ~6 grams of 3-mm x 3-mm cut pieces of 0.1-mm thick ribbon filling the 
space between the sample and reference thermocouples. Upon initial 
pressurization to 380 MPa with D 2 gas, thermal effects similar to those described 
above were observed. During the next three days, the temperature of the vessel 
was (1) reduced to -78°C using dry ice, and subsequently (2) allowed to warm 
slowly to room temperature. This was done because several investigators (c.g., 
Perminov et al., 1952) have reported greatly enhanced solubility of hydrogen in 
palladium at cryogenic temperatures. Finally, the sample was depressurized to a 
20 micron vacuum at room temperature for one day and repressurized to 350 MPa 
for two days. As in the first Pd-D2 experiment, no sustained neutron flux above 
background was observed. 



AUG 31 '89 14:01 ORNL-BRA/WF FAX#6 15-574-0323 


P.14/18 


I. MATERIALS USED FOR GASEOUS CHARGING EXPERIMENTS (please 
complete one sheet for each experiment) 


MATERIAL 

PURITY 

ALLOYING 

ELEMENTS 

SOURCE OF 
MATERIAL 

PREPARATION 
CAST OR WROUGHT 
ANNEALED 
ATMOSPHERE 
VACUUM 

SPECIAL TREATMENT 

CHARACTERIZATION 

STRUCTURAL 

CHEMICAL 

BEFORE OR AFTER USE 

METHODS 

RESULTS 


NOTABLE 

OBSERVATIONS 


Palladium 
99.97 wt. % 

See attached table. 


Martin Marietta Energy Systems Stores, 
Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 




D/METAL RATIO ATTAINED 

EXPERIMENT YIELDED HEAT 
NEUTRONS 
TRITIUM 
HELIUM 


See attached table. 

None,' V 
See attached table. 

Before. 

See attached table. 

See attached table. 

Deuterium continued to effuse from the palladium 
long after experimentation. 


X* 


yes 

no 


don't 

know 

yes 

X no 


don't 

know 

■ j 

yes 

no 

X 

don't 

know 

* j ^ 

yes 

no 

x 

don't 

know 


*Heat released is believed to be entirely 
chemical (not nuclear). 


AUG 31 '89 14:02 ORNL-BRAAF FAX#S15-574-0323 


P.15/18 


Table 1. Analysis of 99.97% Palladium Ribbon a * b 


Ag 

6 

As 

0.7 

Au 

1 

B 

12 

Ba 

<0.2 

Be 

0.20 

Bi 

<0.1 

Br 

<0.04 

Ca 

73 

Cd 

<0.20 

Co 

0.02 

Cs 

<0.03 

Cu 

9 

Fe 

19 

Ga 

<0.03 

Ge 

<0.02 

Hf 

<0.05 

Hg 

<0.08 

In 

<0.01 

Ir 

3 

K 

0.50 

Mg 

0.70 

Mo 

2 

Na 

0.07 

Nb 

0.20 

Ni 

3 

Os 

<0.05 

P 

0.30 

Pb 

0.7 

Pt 

52 

Rb 

<0.01 

Re 

<0.02 

Rh 

29 

Ru 

<0.06 

S 

3 

Sb 

<0.05 

Sc 

0.02 

Se 

<0.01 

Si 

54 

Sn 

<0.30 

Sr 

0.03 

Ta 

<5 

Te 

5 

Th 

0.06 

Ti 

2 

Tl 

<0.02 

U 

0.20 

W 

0.60 

Y 

<0.02 

Zn 

2 

Zr 

4 

a 

0.40 

F 

<0.01 

I 

<0.03 

Ce 

<0.10 

Dy 

<0.04 

Er 

<0.04 

Eu 

<0.02 

Gd 

<0.05 

Ho 

<0.01 

La 

<0.04 

Lu 

<0.01 

Nd 

<0.05 

Pr 

<0.01 

Sm 

<0.04 

Tb 

<0.01 

Tm 

<0.01 

Yb 

<0.04 






Concentrations of all trace elements reported in ppm. 

^Analyzed by DC-arc spectrograph at the Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, TN. Masked 
elements include Al, Cr, Mn, and V. Prior to use in experimentation, the ribbon was: 
cleaned in concentrated aqua regia; heated to 600°C under high vacuum (10-5 torr); 
exposed to 0.05 MPa D 2 gas at 600°C for 15 minutes; held at 600 6 C under high 
vacuum (10 -5 torr) for one hour; cooled back to room temperature; and finally, 
stored under 99.999% argon. Additionally, to preclude surface contamination prior 
to experimentation, the ribbon was loaded into the pressure vessel under 99.999% 
argon. 




AUG 31 '89 14:02 ORNL-BRA/WF FAX#6 15-574-0323 


P.16/18 


MATERIALS USED IN COLD FUSION EXPERIMENTS 


PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: J. G. Blencoe 

ORGANIZATION: Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Chemistry Division 

SHORT DESCRIPTION OF TYPE OF EXPERIMENT: 

Investigation of reactions between high-purity titanium and deuterium at high gas 
pressures and low temperatures. 


RESULTS AND COMMENTS; 

A single T 1 -D 2 experiment has been conducted to test the claim that special 
disequilibrium pressure-temperature conditions will induce cold fusion in Ti-D2 
samples. 

Starting materials for the Ti-D2 experiment were (1) 1.6 mm-diameter titanium 
wire that was chemically polished in an acid bath prior to experimentation 
(Table 1), and (2) high-purity D 2 gas. The titanium wire (a total of 9 grams) was 
cut into 0.5- to 2.5 -cm lengths before being subjected to high D 2 pressure. To 
prevent surface oxidation, the titanium wire was stored and transferred under 
99.999% argon. 

During the Ti-D2 experiment, data were collected on pressure, temperature, and 
detector counts. In detail, the sequence of events was as follows: (1) pressuriza- 

tion to 380 MPa; (2) after approximately 29 hours (to compensate for a slow gas 
leak), repressurization to 380 MPa; (3) cooling to -78°C using dry ice, which 
produced a drop in pressure from 380 to 320 MPa; (4) slow warming to approxi- 
mately 10°C over a 20-hour period, (5) depressurization to 80 MPa; (6) cooling to 
-196°C using liquid nitrogen, which produced a drop in pressure from 80 to 
40 MPa; (7) slow warming to approximately -120°C over a 21 -hour period, which 
produced an increase in pressure from 40 to 60 MPa; (8) rapid wanning to 27 C 
over a 6-hour period, which produced an increase in pressure from 60 to 70 MPa; 
and finally (9) rapid cooling to -196°C, followed by rapid warming to 27°C, alt 
within the space of an hour. After 105 hours of experimentation, the D 2 was 
vented from the pressure vessel and a vacuum pump was used to remove any 
residual gas. 

The average detector count rate for the 105 hours of experimentation was 
532.1 counts/hour. Approximately 80 hours after the experiment began, the count 
rate increased to -590 counts/hour and remained at that level for about 5 hours. 
This increase cannot be due to random fluctuations in the average count rate and is 
potentially significant. If the increase can be attributed to neutrons emitted by the 
Ti-D2 sample, this would correspond to an emission rate of -1000 neutrons/hour. 


P.17/18 


AUG 31 '89 14:03 ORNL-BRA/WF FAX#615-574-0323 


However, because we cannot completely verify that our neutron detectors were 
operating properly during this 5-hour period, it cannot be claimed that cold fusion 
neutrons were observed. We are planning to repeat our Ti-D2 experiment with an 
improved detector system where (1) moderated neutrons will be detected by two 
totally independent detector systems, (2) the background count rate will be 
monitored continuously by a similar and independent detector system placed 
nearby, and (3) additional shielding will be provided in an attempt to improve the 
neutron sensitivity of our detector systems. 




AUG 31 '89 14=04 ORNL-BRfVWF FfiX#6 15-574-0323 


P.18/18 


L MATERIALS USED FOR GASEOUS CHARGING EXPERIMENTS (please 
complete one sheet for each experiment) 


MATERIAL 

PURITY 

ALLOYING 

ELEMENTS 

SOURCE OF 
MATERIAL 

PREPARATION 
CAST OR WROUGHT 
ANNEALED 
ATMOSPHERE 
VACUUM 

SPECIAL TREATMENT 

CHARACTERIZATION 

STRUCTURAL 

CHEMICAL 

BEFORE OR AFTER USE 

METHODS 

RESULTS 


Titanium 
99.91 wt. % 

See attached table. 


Commercial source 
(See attached table.) 


None. 




0 


NOTABLE 

OBSERVATIONS 


sSi 




0 


See attached table. 

None. . 

See attached table. 

Before. 

See attached table. 

See attached table. 

No visible evidence of any reaction between the 
titanium and deuterium. 


D/METAL RATIO ATTAINED Not determined. 


EXPERIMENT YIELDED HEAT 
NEUTRONS 
TRITIUM 
HELIUM 


yes 

yes 

yes 

yes 


no 


don't 

know 

no 


don't 

know 

no 

X 

don't 

know 

no 

_JS_ 

. don't 

know 



AUG 31 '89 14:05 ORNL-BRA/WF FAX#6 15-574-0323 


P. 19/18 


Table 1. Analysis of 99.91% Titanium Wire a *b 


c 

35.0 

N 

15.0 

O 

500.0 

Mg 

<5.0 

Si 

<5.0 

A1 

20.0 

S 

10.0 

Ca 

5.0 

V 

5.0 

Cr 

40.0 

Mn 

30.0 

Fe 

150.0 

Ni 

40.0 

Cu 

30.0 

Sn 

10.0 

Pb 

20.0 

Bi 

<10.0 










Concentrations of all trace elements reported in ppm. 




O 


bLot analysis reported by vendor (#22/58107, Materials Research Corp., 

Orangeburg, NY). Prior to use in experimentation, the wire was chemically polished 
in an acid bath (nitric + lactic + hydrofluoric acid in a 5:5:4 ratio) to remove all 
surficial titanium oxide. 




&